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Table Of Contents

Describing a mass of data
Population samples and scores
Two basic types of measure
Measures of central tendency
Measures of dispersion
Grouped data
Study exercises
Study exercises 1
A necessary glimpse of probability
The problem of statistical inference
Some basic laws of probability
Probability in health calculations
Factorial notation
Calculating with permutations
Repeated trials
Normal distribution
When the in®nite is ®nite
Relating s to probabilities
An approximation to the normal curve
The binomial distribution
Throwing dice
Approximating the normal curve
Using the binomial distribution algebraically
Testing statistical hypotheses
The relationship between binomial and normal distributions
Testing samples
Random samples
Study exercises 3
Testing a sample
Analysing a test of sample mean
The null hypothesis
Looking at sample means more intuitively
Testing a di erence of means of large samples
Con®dence limits
Study exercises 4
Testing small samples
Problems with small samples
Two samples
The t-test
Actually calculating `t'
Another application of the t-distribution
Establishing an interval for the population mean
Comparing a sample mean with the population mean
Why demand equal standard deviations?
A taste of epidemiology
What is epidemiology?
Various proportions and rates
Sensitivity, speci®city and predictive value
More informed sectioning of probability spaces
Joint probability
Conditional probability
Dependent and independent events
Application to disease states
Apparent anomalies
Study exercises 5
From binomial to Poisson
Rates of occurrence
Exponential growth and decay
Natural growth and `e'
The general formula for compound interest
Changing to natural growth
Evaluating `e'
Link between rate and risk
Poisson distribution
Death by horse kick
The Poisson and binomial distribution compared
Non-parametric statistics
What is `non-parametric'?
Wilcoxon two-independent sample test
The sign test for the paired case
The Wilcoxon test for the paired case
The chi-square test
Study exercises 6
For the algebraically innocent
Measuring correlations
Straight line equations
Locating points
Graphing algebraic expressions
Straight lines and their gradients
Calculating a straight line's slope
Going from graph to algebra
Study exercises 7
The Gini coe cient
The non-clinical context of health
The Lorenz curve explained
Gini coe cients worldwide
Strengths ofGas a measure of income inequality
Critical comments on the use ofG-score
Correlation: a measure of relatedness
Are they cor-related or co-related?
Computing a value for correlation
The Pearson product-moment correlation coe cient
How about remembering formulae?
Calculating r from grouped data
The sampling distribution of r-scores
The problem of prediction
Linear correlation
Back to the algebra
Where to from here?
Study exercises 8
Introducing ANOVA
What can ANOVA do for you?
Developing procedures for ANOVA
What do the two variances mean?
Setting up the variance table
Discussion of steps in ANOVA
An ANOVA problem
But why use ANOVA?
A brief introduction to designing a research project
Formulating your research problem
Writing up the proposal
Revising, doing, revising
Answers to study exercises
Areas under the normal probability curve (Z-table)
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Basic Concepts in Statistics and Epidemiology

Basic Concepts in Statistics and Epidemiology

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Published by: butaru on Jul 13, 2012
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