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Criticar fotografías, Terry Barrett (en Ingles)

Criticar fotografías, Terry Barrett (en Ingles)

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Published by: Iván Giraldo Gómez on Jul 14, 2012
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CriticizingPhotographs
(!)
MayfieldPublishingCompany
MountainView,Callfornia
>
LondonToronto
.........................................................................................................................................
AnIntroductiontoUnderstandingImages
THIRDEDITION
TerryBarrett
TheOhioStateUniversity
 
ForDad
Copyright©2000,1996,1990byMayfieldPublishingCompanyAllrightsreserved.Noportionofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyformorbyanymeanswithoutwrittenpermissionofthepublisher.99-26895CIP
,
LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationDataBarrett,TerryMichaelCriticizingphotographs:anintroductiontounderstandingimages/TerryBarrett.-3rded.p.cm.Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.ISBN0-7674-1186-2
1.
Photography,Artistic.2.Photographiccriticism.
1.
Title.TR642.B3651999770'.1-dcllManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica109876543MayfieldPublishingCompany1280VillaStreetMountainView,California94041Sponsoringeditor.janetM.Beatty;productioneditor,MelissaWilliamsKreischer;manuscripteditor.joanPendleton;designmanager.JeanMailander;textandcoverdesigner,AmyEvansMcClure;coverart,
©
WilliamWegman,
OceanView,
1997,20"
X
24"Polaroid;manu-facturingmanager,RandyHurst.Thetextwassetin10/13BerkeleyOldstyleMediumbyTBHTypecast,Inc.andprintedonacid-free50#SomersetMattebyR.R.Donnelley
&:
SonsCompany.
 
Chapter3InterpretingPhotographs
INTERPRETATION.MEANING.ANDPERSONALSIGNIFICANCE
Adistinctioncanbemadebetweensignificanceand
meaning.e"
Significance
ismorepersonalthanmeaning.Significancereferstohowaphotographaffectsusorwhatitmeanstous.
Meaning
ismoreobjectivethansignificance,referringtowhatthepho-tographisaboutinitselforwhatseveralpeoplewouldinferorwhatcanbemadeobvioustoanyinformedviewer.Asimilardistinctionbetween"meaningin"and"meaning
to"
helpstheinterpreterstayontrackinpresentinganinterpretationofthephotograph.PWhataphotographmeans
to
memaynotbewhatthephotographisaboutinitself.Personalsignificanceandpersonalassociationswithphotographsarevaluabletoeachofus,buttheymaybetooidiosyncratic,toopersonal,tobevaluabletootherswhowishtounderstandmoreabouttheimageitself.
If
ourinter-pretationsaretoopersonalandtooidiosyncratic,theybecomemoreaboutusandlessabouttheimage.Anotherwayofsayingthisisthat"ifinterpretationisnotref-erencedtovisualproperties(intheimage),discourseleavestherealmofcriticismandbecomesconjecture,therapy,reminiscence,orsomeothermannerofpurelysubjectivefunctioning.
"36
THECOMMUNITYOFINTERPRETERS
Ultimately,viableinterpretationsarethoseheldbyacommunityofinformedinter-pretersthatincludescritics,artists,historians,dealers,collectors,andviewers.Interpretations,intheend,areacollectiveendeavorarrivedatbyavarietyofpeo-pleobserving,talkingandwritingabout,andrevisingtheirunderstandingsofcom-plexanddynamicimagesmadebysophisticatedimagemakers.JuliaKristevapleadsforan"ethicsofmodesty"forallinterpreters-thatis,thatnooneconsidershisorherperceptionastheonlypossibleone.
37
MichaelParsons,anarteducator,haswritteninsightfullyaboutthecommunityofartinterpreters:aswelookatapainting.wepresupposethecompanyofotherswhoarealsolookingat
it.
Weareimaginativelyoneofagroupwhodiscussthepaintingbecausetheyseethesamedetails,andcanhelpeachothertounderstandthem.Thepaintingexistsnotbetweenthetwoindividualpolesoftheartistandtheviewerbut-inthemidstofanindefinitegroupofpersonswhoarecontinuallyreconstructingit-acommunityof~ewers.38Thecommunityiscorrective:Itwon'tacceptanyinterpretationunlesstheinter-pretationissensibleandcontributestoknowledge;ontheotherhand,thecommu-nityofinterpretersdisallowsdogmaticandinflexibleunderstandingsbecauseitknowsthatartobjectsareultimatelyrichobjectsthatarelessthandeterminable~)J.dthatourunderstandingsofthemwillcontinuetoshift,usuallysubtlybutsome-timesdramaticallyByfollowingtheprinciplesdetailedinthischapterwecanjoininthatdialogue,contributetoit,andbenefitfromit.
CHAPTER
TypesofPhotographs
S
INCETHEEARLYYEARS
ofphotography,peoplehavebeenplacingphoto-graphsincategories.In1839,theyearthemediumwasinvented,photographywasdividedintoitstwooldestandmostenduringcategorieswhenitwaspro-claimedtobebothascienceandanart.!Anothertime-honoreddivisionfromtheearlyyearsofphotography,andstillin,.usebutwithdifferentlabels,dividesphotographsmadeasartintotwogroups,pic-torialistandpurist.Morecurrenttermsforthesedivisionsare"manipulated"and"straight."Thedivisionwasantagonistic;atissuewasthemeansofmakingpho-tographs.In1861
C.
JabezHughes,apictorialist,declared:
"If
apicturecannotbeproducedbyonenegative,lethimhavetwoorten;but...thepicturewhenfin-ishedmuststandorfallentirelybytheeffectsproducedandnotthemeansemployed.t'-Thestraightaesthetic,however,wouldmandatethatphotographersusetechniquesconsidered"photographic"ratherthanhand-manipulatedand"painterly."In1904criticSadakichiHartmannpromotedstraightphotography:"Inshort,composethepicturewhichyouintendtotakesowellthatthenegativewillbeabsolutelyperfectandinneedofnoorbutslightmanipulatton.'?AbouttwentyyearslaterEdwardWestonreiteratedthestraightposition,declaring"theapproachtophotographyisthroughrealism.?"PhotographyhistorianBeaumontNewhall,inhis1964editionof
TheHistoryof
Photography,
dividesphotographsintofourstylistictrends:straight,formalistic,documentary,andequivalent.PHeidentifiesAlfredStieglitz,PaulStrand,EdwardWeston,andAnselAdamsasparadigmexamplesofthoseemployingastraightapproach"inwhichtheabilityofthecameratorecordexactimageswithrichtex-tureandgreatdetailisusedtointerpretnatureandman,neverlosingcontactwith

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