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Types of Energy

Types of Energy

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Published by Riaz Hussain

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Published by: Riaz Hussain on Jul 14, 2012
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01/12/2014

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T
 YPES OF
E
NERGY
Energy can be differentiated as1. Kinetic energy 2. Potential energy 
Kinetic Energy
1. Sound2. Wind3. Mechanical for example moving piston in a cylinder4. Electrical energy. Electricity, lightning 5. Thermal Energy, Heat, hot water, steam6. Light , microwaves, x-rays , solar, ultra violet rays
Potential energy
1. Gravitational energy. Hydro power, ball above ground2. Spring . stretched rubber band3. Magnetic planetary poles4. Nuclear , fission, fusion, heavy water uranium5. Chemical , gasoline, batteries, oil natural gas, gun powder, coal, wood
T
HERMAL
E
NERGY
 Thermal Energy is the oldest type of energy. With all known history available, Wood was always used for heating and cooking. In 2nd world war fossil fuels entered in theform of coal to get the energy, until liquid fuels were discovered and because of theirconvenience of transportation they took over as major contributors of the energy source.
Once the steam engines were invented then the coal or liquid fuel wasburnt in the boilers and the heat produces steam which is used to drive electricalgenerators, or any other mechanical device.Rudolph diesels invention of diesel engine revolutionaries the energy concept and today we see sine the majority of machines moving on diesel engines.Diesel engines can be 2 stroke or 4 stroke type. They can be in line orarranged in V or even W shape. They can be single acting or double acting. Another method of converting thermal energy to mechanical energy is by the gasturbines. Turbines are also used to run by steam or hot gases which are producedby igniting fuel.For converting thermal energy to electrical energy alternators are used todrive on constant RPM. The choice of gensets strictly depends on the requirement of the client,before ordering a power plant following points to be considered1. Expected demand of the power.2. Type of fuel required3. Space available for the power plant4. Avilability of genset5. Avilability of local service back up and stock of parts6. Price is paramount importance and hidden expenses should be lookedcarefully 
 
 The major manufacturers and suppliers of Gensets based on internalcombustion engines are given below 1. MAN2. Wartsila3. Caterpillar4. Jen Bacher5. Waukesha6. Mitsubishi7. Detroit Diesel8. Rolls RoyceInternal combustion engine can obtain 30-50% thermal efficiency. Itmeans that around 50% energy is wasted in the form of exhaust gases , cooling systems and radiation. Therefore for larger plants heat recovery systems areutilized.In Pakistan due to attractive gas prices this is a general trend that gasoperated power plants are preferred if gas connections are available. The gas gensets are available from less than 1 MW sizes to 6 MW configuration. Normally they are V type and 12,16 18 and 20 cylinderconfiguration.In addition some models are available on duel fuel technology which canbe operated simultaneously on gas and furnace oil. The price of a 3 MW gas genset can be expected around 1 Million $.However low RPM engines will be more costly Unit cost of fuel on gas genset canbe evaluated as followsFuel Cost Rs 2.7 (depends upon the genset )Maintenance Rs 0.20Lubricating Oil Rs.0.10Chemical R Rs. 0.02General stores Rs. 0.01Labor Rs.0.10Overhead +Insurance Rs.0.07Financing 0.20 Total Rs. 3.40 The engines which are running the fuel cost is only variable and can be calculatedby multiplying fuel cost by a factor of 225. (225 grams / KWHR is an average netfuel consumption expected.)
H
 YDEL
E
NERGY
 Water flowing in the rivers has kinetic energy. Once they are used to drive theturbine and produce electricity the power generated as Hydel Energy.Power produced by the turbines depends on quantity of waterflowing/minute and the head of water available.Mostly river flows by melting glaciers on high mountains. Once the waterstart flowing in the valleys it changes its head very rapidly. This energy can beconverted into electrical energy. Two method are normally used:-1. Dams2. Run of River projects.
 
In case of Dams the water flow is restricted by making a huge storage deviceand the head of water is increased, the water then is allowed to flow by means of gatesand pass through the turbines, the head of reservoir level is maintained to provideuniform power, and the water stored in peak season additionally is used for irrigationpurposes in dry seasons.
In run of river projects the water is diverted through the tunnels and onceit gains the head allowed to fall and pass through the turbines and back to river. the water in these projects is continuously flowing and not being stored.Geographical situation is paramount importance in choosing a suitable sitefor the hydro project and it evolves a very serious time and money consuming study.Once a site is located further detailed feasibility study is required beforeproceeding any serious effort to start the work. The feasibility study should include following field work.1. Detailed Mapping of the area2. Topographic study of the area3. Seismic refraction study 4. River flow data5. Weather data containing, Temperatures, pressures, rain humidity 6. Water sampling and testing 7. Environmental study 8. Social impact9. Wild life and fish study 10. Identification of stake holders of the area11. Coring and getting samples of the soil at 50-200 meters depth12. Laboratory testing of the cores samples13. Tectonic study to evaluate earth quake dangers
W
IND
E
NERGY
Pakistan is facing acute shortage of energy. with 7% increase of its economy thisshort fall soon to slow down its economic growth and will shatter its dream tobecome one day a developed country.
Most of its energy demand is being met with either Hydro power or thermalunits. Pakistan is spending a very large amount of foreign exchange to purchase thefurnace. The gas reserves already start depleting and oil markets are sky rocketing. Toovercome this shortage Government take a initiative to investigate Alternate energy resources in Pakistan developed Alternate Energy Board AEDB. The Board is headedby Retd Air Marshal Shahid Hamid. identified 50,000 MW energy potential from windresource
Pakistan is blessed with a large resource of wind corridor. AlthoughPakistan meteorological Department was gathering wind data for quite long timeBut recently United States provided wind energy map for Pakistan which confirmsa strong wind corridor in Sind coastal area. AEDB issued about 80 LOI to the investors List of LOI holders )todevelop 50 MW wind farms. Out of which 15 are already issued the land andfeasibility reports and financial closings are in progress. The following is a brief road map for developing a wind form1. submission of proposal by sponsor2. Review of proposal by AEDB3. Posting of Bank Guarantee

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