Chapter 8a: Electrical Braking 0903582: Electrical Drives © Copyright held by the author 2010: Dr. Lutfi R. Al-Sharif Page 1 of 17
Chapter 8aElectrical Braking(Revision 2.0, 18/4/2010)
In any motion control system (especially hoisting applications) braking is necessaryto accurately control the position and speed of the load. Braking can be achieved byelectrical or mechanical means. In traditional vehicle applications, braking isachieved by using a hydraulically operated mechanical brake (e.g., as in a car). Inmost modern motion control systems electrical braking is used on the motor, and themechanical brake is only used as a parking brake.Most modern applications use these two methods as follows:1. Electrical braking is used to decelerate and bring the load to a standstill. Ithas the advantage that it does not lead to any wear in the system. In certaincases the energy can also be recovered and stored or returned to the mainsupply. It cannot be used as a safety brake as it relies on the presence of apower supply that could be lost under certain conditions.2. Mechanical braking is used as an emergency brake or as a parking brake.This Chapter discusses electrical braking, while mechanical braking is discussed in8b.
2 Excessive Energy during Braking
In any system which can overhaul, excess energy will be generated by the motor.When a load is overhauling (braked lowering) excess energy will be generated. Themotor will act as a generator (e.g., if it is an induction motor it will be running abovethe synchronous speed).In the case of variable frequency inverter drives, this excess energy will bereturned as charge on the terminals of the capacitor. If not removed, this chargecauses the voltage on the DC link to rise, and could cause damage to the system.Removing this excess charge protects the system, and also achieves the function ofbraking the motor. Two methods exist for removing the charge: dynamic resistorbraking and regenerative braking. These are discussed in this Chapter as well, astwo of the methods of electrical braking.
3 Methods of Electrical Braking
Five methods of electrical braking are discussed in this Chapter:1. DC injection braking.2. Plugging.3. Eddy current braking.4. Dynamic resistor braking.5. Regenerative braking.The first method is mainly used in variable voltage AC drives. The last two methodsare mainly used in variable frequency drives.