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8a Electrical Braking Rev 2 100418(GOOD ONE)

8a Electrical Braking Rev 2 100418(GOOD ONE)

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Published by Priyaranjan Das

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Published by: Priyaranjan Das on Jul 14, 2012
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Chapter 8a: Electrical Braking 0903582: Electrical Drives  © Copyright held by the author 2010: Dr. Lutfi R. Al-Sharif Page 1 of 17
Chapter 8aElectrical Braking(Revision 2.0, 18/4/2010)
1 Introduction
In any motion control system (especially hoisting applications) braking is necessaryto accurately control the position and speed of the load. Braking can be achieved byelectrical or mechanical means. In traditional vehicle applications, braking isachieved by using a hydraulically operated mechanical brake (e.g., as in a car). Inmost modern motion control systems electrical braking is used on the motor, and themechanical brake is only used as a parking brake.Most modern applications use these two methods as follows:1. Electrical braking is used to decelerate and bring the load to a standstill. Ithas the advantage that it does not lead to any wear in the system. In certaincases the energy can also be recovered and stored or returned to the mainsupply. It cannot be used as a safety brake as it relies on the presence of apower supply that could be lost under certain conditions.2. Mechanical braking is used as an emergency brake or as a parking brake.This Chapter discusses electrical braking, while mechanical braking is discussed in8b.
2 Excessive Energy during Braking
In any system which can overhaul, excess energy will be generated by the motor.When a load is overhauling (braked lowering) excess energy will be generated. Themotor will act as a generator (e.g., if it is an induction motor it will be running abovethe synchronous speed).In the case of variable frequency inverter drives, this excess energy will bereturned as charge on the terminals of the capacitor. If not removed, this chargecauses the voltage on the DC link to rise, and could cause damage to the system.Removing this excess charge protects the system, and also achieves the function ofbraking the motor. Two methods exist for removing the charge: dynamic resistorbraking and regenerative braking. These are discussed in this Chapter as well, astwo of the methods of electrical braking.
3 Methods of Electrical Braking
Five methods of electrical braking are discussed in this Chapter:1. DC injection braking.2. Plugging.3. Eddy current braking.4. Dynamic resistor braking.5. Regenerative braking.The first method is mainly used in variable voltage AC drives. The last two methodsare mainly used in variable frequency drives.
3.1 Plugging
 
Chapter 8a: Electrical Braking 0903582: Electrical Drives  © Copyright held by the author 2010: Dr. Lutfi R. Al-Sharif Page 2 of 17Another method of braking is called plugging, which involves applying the reversephase sequence to the winding, as if trying to reverse the motor rotation. A typicalset-up is shown in Figure 1. This method does not require a pole changing motor (asrequired in the dc injection braking method). However, care has to be taken not toswitch on any of the reverse sequence SCRs until the forward sequence SCR hasceased to conduct; otherwise a short circuit will result, which would damage theSCRs and trip the electrical protection. For these reasons, plugging systems willinvariably has a zero current detector fitted in the path of the motor current to checkthat the current has dropped to zero before reversing the phase sequence. Thismethod also suffers from the disadvantage that it can inject high values of current inthe rotor, and rotor bars have been known to rupture due to the high currents inducedin the rotor bars.RST1234561'4'2'5'  
Figure 1: The use of 5 pairs of back to back SCRs to drive and brake the motor.
3.2 Eddy Current Braking
Another method of braking which is not widely used is the so-called Eddy currentbraking method. It is based on the principle of inducing a current in a rotating disk,by which the circulating current will induce a back torque opposing the rotation. “Thismethod is used to obtain braking torque from the eddy current brake which isattached on one end of the motor shaft. It has the characteristics of the DC dynamicbrake. The braking torque, which is substantially good enough at longer speedranges, becomes zero when the speed becomes zero. (Fukuda, 1979)”. Thismethod needs a complicated non-standard motor, cannot produce any torque atstandstill and dissipates all the heat in the machine, rather than returning it to thesupply.
 
Chapter 8a: Electrical Braking 0903582: Electrical Drives  © Copyright held by the author 2010: Dr. Lutfi R. Al-Sharif Page 3 of 17Figure 2 shows an example of an Eddy current brake attached to a lift motorthat is driven by a variable drive. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show a Siemens Eddycurrent brake used for teaching purposes in a laboratory.
Figure 2: Eddy current brake attached to the motor (Eddy current brake can be seen on theright hand side) [97 Cromwell Road].Figure 3: Eddy current brake used in the lab.Figure 4: Eddy current brake terminals.
3.3 Resistor Dynamic Braking

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