be gradual (approximately one knot per second) until thestick shaker activates.High altitude practice approach to stalls may be practicedfrom the cruise conﬁgurations only. The approach to stallshould be accomplished in turning ﬂight from speeds aboveMach 0.55. The speed should be decreased steadily at oneknot per sec. until shaker has actuated.
Practice approach to stalls will not be accomplished unless both Stall Warning systems areoperable. The pilot should not carry the stallbeyond a point of heavy aircraft buffet in casethe stall warning system fails to operate properly.
The stall recovery on the C-141 is conventional for thistype of airplane. At stick shaker onset, the relaxation ofthe elevator or a moderate push on the control column accompanied by an increase in engine thrust will produce a recoverywith minimum loss of altitude. Ailerons should be usedfor lateral control during recovery. Use of rudder will delayrecovery and could produce large bank angle upsets.
Every aircraft generates wake turbulence in-ﬂight. Wingtipvortices are the most hazardous component of this wake.A wingtip vortex is a highly rotational mass of disturbedhigh energy air created by an airfoil as it produces lift. Thestrength of the vortex is governed by the angle of attackand shape of the aircraft wing. The greatest vortex occurswhen the generating aircraft is HEAVY, CLEAN, and SLOW,i.e., high angles of attack. If an aircraft encounters waketurbulence, induced rolling moments caused by the wingtipvortex can roll the airplane sharply, and may exceed ﬂightcontrol authority. In this situation, aileron input alone maynot be sufﬁcient for recovery. A timely application of powerand coordinated ﬂight control inputs may be necessary toescape the severe upward and downward forces.
WAKE TURBULENCE AVOIDANCE PROCEDURES.
Avoid the area below and behind the generating aircraft,especially at low altitude where even a momentary wakeencounter can be hazardous. In all phases of ﬂight, pilotsshould consider the wake turbulence generated by their aircraft or preceding aircraft and plan or adjust their ﬂightpaths to minimize wake turbulence exposure to their ownaircraft or wingmen. The amount of ﬂight control input andthe amount of time required to recover will depend on theseverity of the wake turbulence encountered. At the ﬁrstindication of encountering wake turbulence take immediatesteps to recover:
1. Immediately apply power.2. Pull up using elevator control, then apply rudder and aileron inputs.3. When out of wake turbulence, normal ﬂight control authority will be regained enabling complete recovery ofaircraft control.
Spins are a prohibited maneuver. If a spin is entered accidentally, a normal recovery should be effective.Reduce power to idle, apply full rudder (opposite to needleindication on the turn and slip indicator) and ailerons againstthe spin. Without changing the trim setting of the horizontalstabilizer, hold elevator control forward of the neutral position. When rotation stops, immediately return rudder andaileron to neutral. Perform dive recovery.
Excessive aircraft structural loads or a secondary stall may result from an abrupt pulloutduring dive recovery.
Dutch Roll is a combination of yawing and rolling motionthat is characteristic of sweptwing aircraft. These yawingand rolling motions are interrelated, in that the Dutch Rollcannot exist without both roll and yaw. Large rolling/yawingmotions may become dangerous unless properly dampened.The Dutch Roll in this aircraft can be stable, neutral, orunstable and is a function of gross weight, altitude, and airspeed. The Dutch Roll oscillations are less stable with increased altitude, increased weight, and low airspeed.Dutch Roll can be induced by turbulence, aileron inputs,rudder inputs, or any combination of these conditions.
DUTCH ROLL RECOVERY PROCEDURES.
The primary means of stopping Dutch Roll is the yaw damper.In addition, the autopilot lateral axis will dampen the DutchRoll under all conditions.Manual recovery is accomplished with aileron control inputs.The yawing and rolling motion of the Dutch Roll is interrelated but the rolling motion is more noticeable. Stoppingthe rolling motion with ailerons will also dampen the yawingmotion. The period of the Dutch Roll is approximately 5to 7 seconds; therefore, the initial pilot action is to analyzethe rolling motion. The rolling motion of the Dutch Rollwill reverse direction every 3 to 4 seconds. The rolling motionto the left requires right aileron, and conversely a rollingmotion to the right requires left aileron. Maintain a wings-level ﬂight attitude./^%