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C-141C Dash 1 021 6- 1-4

C-141C Dash 1 021 6- 1-4

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Published by bkaplan452
C-141C Dash 1 Section 6, Pages 1-4 Flight Characteristics
C-141C Dash 1 Section 6, Pages 1-4 Flight Characteristics

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Published by: bkaplan452 on Jul 15, 2012
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TO 1 C-141 C-1
The aircraft is designed for high-speed, high altitude flight.A satisfactory level of stability and control is experiencedthroughout the airspeed and altitude range. Aerobatic flightis prohibited.
Refer to TO 1C-141B-1-1 for stall speed charts.STALL CHARACTERISTICS.During an approach to a straight flight stall, light buffetonset will be encountered prior to stick shaker actuation.At the angle of attack for buffet onset, lateral control isadequate. Without the wing vortex generators, the initialstall of the wing is an airflow separation over the uppersurface between the pylons. At angles of attack for shakerstall warning and greater, the loss of lift is not always symmetrical on both wings; therefore, the ability to maintainwings level becomes more difficult since roll control is lesseffective. Use of rudder will aggravate this lateral controlproblem and may result in a large bank upset during recovery.Timely use of aileron control after buffet or shaker onsetwill prevent excessive roll excursions.In turning-flight stalls, the aircraft exhibits a natural tendencyto roll out of the turn at the stick shaker onset point. Ifthis tendency is resisted or the turn tightened, the aircraftwill show a tendency to roll under with an increase in buffetlevel. This tendency is best corrected by applying roll controland rolling out of the turn during recovery of airspeed.WARNINGDo not tighten a turn or resist the aircraft tendency to roll to wings level when an inadvertent turning flight stall is encountered.STALL WARNING.Shaker onset has been demonstrated to occur at speeds ranging from 2 knots to as high as 24 knots above calculatedstall speed at altitudes of 10,000 to 12,000 feet and 24,000to 26,000 feet. At 33,000 to 35,000 feet, shaker onset hasbeen demonstrated to occur at speeds ranging from 15 to33 knots above calculated stall speed. The speed at whichshaker onset occurs is influenced by gear and flaps, grossweight, and center of gravity. For a given configuration,the number of knots above calculated stall speed at whichshaker onset occurs will increase as the calculated stall speedincreases. Insufficient flight data exists to plot onset curves.PRACTICE STALLS.Intentional stalls are strictly prohibited. Approach to stallsmay be practiced during training to the stick shaker onsetpoint under the supervision of an instructor pilot. Whenpractice approach to stalls are undertaken, the aircraft shouldbe trimmed at 1.4 times the computed stall speed for theaircraft configuration. Once the trim has been established,this setting should not be changed. Practice approach tostalls should be accomplished at idle or with small amountsof power. Deceleration during the approach to stallshould6-1
TO 1C-141C-1
be gradual (approximately one knot per second) until thestick shaker activates.High altitude practice approach to stalls may be practicedfrom the cruise configurations only. The approach to stallshould be accomplished in turning flight from speeds aboveMach 0.55. The speed should be decreased steadily at oneknot per sec. until shaker has actuated.
:aution I
Practice approach to stalls will not be accomplished unless both Stall Warning systems areoperable. The pilot should not carry the stallbeyond a point of heavy aircraft buffet in casethe stall warning system fails to operate properly.
The stall recovery on the C-141 is conventional for thistype of airplane. At stick shaker onset, the relaxation ofthe elevator or a moderate push on the control column accompanied by an increase in engine thrust will produce a recoverywith minimum loss of altitude. Ailerons should be usedfor lateral control during recovery. Use of rudder will delayrecovery and could produce large bank angle upsets.
Every aircraft generates wake turbulence in-flight. Wingtipvortices are the most hazardous component of this wake.A wingtip vortex is a highly rotational mass of disturbedhigh energy air created by an airfoil as it produces lift. Thestrength of the vortex is governed by the angle of attackand shape of the aircraft wing. The greatest vortex occurswhen the generating aircraft is HEAVY, CLEAN, and SLOW,i.e., high angles of attack. If an aircraft encounters waketurbulence, induced rolling moments caused by the wingtipvortex can roll the airplane sharply, and may exceed flightcontrol authority. In this situation, aileron input alone maynot be sufficient for recovery. A timely application of powerand coordinated flight control inputs may be necessary toescape the severe upward and downward forces.
Avoid the area below and behind the generating aircraft,especially at low altitude where even a momentary wakeencounter can be hazardous. In all phases of flight, pilotsshould consider the wake turbulence generated by their aircraft or preceding aircraft and plan or adjust their flightpaths to minimize wake turbulence exposure to their ownaircraft or wingmen. The amount of flight control input andthe amount of time required to recover will depend on theseverity of the wake turbulence encountered. At the firstindication of encountering wake turbulence take immediatesteps to recover:
1. Immediately apply power.2. Pull up using elevator control, then apply rudder and aileron inputs.3. When out of wake turbulence, normal flight control authority will be regained enabling complete recovery ofaircraft control.
Spins are a prohibited maneuver. If a spin is entered accidentally, a normal recovery should be effective.Reduce power to idle, apply full rudder (opposite to needleindication on the turn and slip indicator) and ailerons againstthe spin. Without changing the trim setting of the horizontalstabilizer, hold elevator control forward of the neutral position. When rotation stops, immediately return rudder andaileron to neutral. Perform dive recovery.
Excessive aircraft structural loads or a secondary stall may result from an abrupt pulloutduring dive recovery.
Dutch Roll is a combination of yawing and rolling motionthat is characteristic of sweptwing aircraft. These yawingand rolling motions are interrelated, in that the Dutch Rollcannot exist without both roll and yaw. Large rolling/yawingmotions may become dangerous unless properly dampened.The Dutch Roll in this aircraft can be stable, neutral, orunstable and is a function of gross weight, altitude, and airspeed. The Dutch Roll oscillations are less stable with increased altitude, increased weight, and low airspeed.Dutch Roll can be induced by turbulence, aileron inputs,rudder inputs, or any combination of these conditions.
The primary means of stopping Dutch Roll is the yaw damper.In addition, the autopilot lateral axis will dampen the DutchRoll under all conditions.Manual recovery is accomplished with aileron control inputs.The yawing and rolling motion of the Dutch Roll is interrelated but the rolling motion is more noticeable. Stoppingthe rolling motion with ailerons will also dampen the yawingmotion. The period of the Dutch Roll is approximately 5to 7 seconds; therefore, the initial pilot action is to analyzethe rolling motion. The rolling motion of the Dutch Rollwill reverse direction every 3 to 4 seconds. The rolling motionto the left requires right aileron, and conversely a rollingmotion to the right requires left aileron. Maintain a wings-level flight attitude./^%
TO 1C-141C-1WARNING^^(^\
The use of rudders either singly or in conjunction with aileron to dampen the Dutch Rollis difficult and should not be attempted. Thereis a high probability of aggravating the DutchRoll condition.The Dutch Roll is well damped at all altitudes and grossweights at 0.79 Mach and above. Increasing the Mach numberto 0.79 • 0.80 by accelerating/descending will dampen theDutch Roll with no lateral directional control inputs; however, increasing airspeed with large yaw/Dutch Roll oscillationsmay cause aircraft structural damage.
At speeds in excess of Mach 0.85 with wings level, buffetintensity is such that deliberate operation is not recommended. It is possible to fly fast enough to cause a progressiveairflow separation over the wing which results in aircraftbuffet. At speeds above 0.84 Mach, natural aircraft buffetis experienced at all altitude and gross weight conditionswith wings level. As bank angle is introduced, buffet onsetoccurs at proportionally lower Mach numbers as shown onthe Buffet Boundary Limitation chart, figure 1-13 in TOIC-141B-1-1.
The range between slow-speed and high-speed flight is unusually large, but stability and control are normal for anytrimmed condition.
The C-141C exhibits small yawing motions at speeds greaterthan 200 KCAS. These motions are characterized primarilyby their small (barely noticeable) magnitude and, becauseofthe small magnitude, affect neither the handling characteristics nor the flight path of the aircraft. These motions arean inherent aerodynamic characteristics of the airframe andare not associated with any of the control systems of theaircraft, either automatic or manual.These motions are not continuous yawing oscillations. Theyare small changes in the yaw angle ofthe aircraft. The changeis about one degree. The new yaw angle is held steady fora time ranging from several seconds to several minutes, thenabruptly releases. It may repeat in several seconds or maynot repeat for 15 or 20 minutes. Extensive flight tests haveshown this phenomenon to be more prevalent at altitudesbelow FL200 but it has occurred at all altitudes. Some aircraftmay not exhibit this characteristic on every flight and somemay not exhibit it at all.
Intentional operation in the speed range between 380 and410 KCAS is not recommended since a substantial reductionin aileron control effectiveness is experienced. Positive lateral conlrol is still available with full aileron control deflection;partial aileron control deflections may be ineffective. Anincreased roll rate will be obtained if full rudder, as wellas full aileron, is utilized to recover from large lateral upsetsat these high speeds.During recovery from high speed upsets at speeds approaching maximum, a loss of aileron effectiveness will be noted.If this should occur, full aileron throw will provide a positiveroll rate. The rudder is an effective roll control device atthese high speeds and must be properly coordinated to obtainadequate roll response. An increased roll rate will be obtainedif full rudder, as well as aileron, is used to recover fromlarge lateral upsets at high speeds. When operating at maximum speeds, positive pilot input to the rudder should beused when lateral correction is required, thus overcomingopposite yaw created by momentary yaw damper operation.
Spoiler deployment results in wing buffeting and pitch uptendency. The spoilers should be deployed or retracted slowlywhile in-flight to prevent sudden upsets from trimmed condition. Rapid spoiler retraction during recovery from a trimmedhigh speed descent will considerably increase the pilot effortdue to pitch down tendency.The minimum allowable speed with spoilers deployed canbe determined using the appropriate figure in TO1 C-141 B-1-1. An audible and visual under spoiler speedindication will occur at this minimum speed. If this warningshould occur, retract the spoilers or increase speed immediately.
Do not intentionally accelerate into a stall withspoilers extended. The spoiler under speedwarning system may not provide adequatewarning when accelerating into a stall.
The aileron tab lockout system provides a backup sourceof lateral control should an aileron lose hydraulic power.Roll rate is significantly reduced in this configuration andresponse time is increased.

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