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Basic Well Log Interpretation

Basic Well Log Interpretation

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Published by Shahnawaz Mustafa

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Published by: Shahnawaz Mustafa on Jul 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The continuous recording of a geophysical parameter along a borehole produces a geophysicalwell log. The value of the measurement is plotted continuously against depth in the well. Welllogging plays a central role in the successful development of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Itsmeasurements occupy a position of central importance in the life of a well, between twomilestones: the surface seismic survey, which has influenced the decision for the well location,and the production testing. The traditional role of wireline logging has been limited toparticipation primarily in two general domains: formation evaluation and completionevaluation.The goals of formation evaluation can be summarized by a statement of four questions of primary interest in the production of hydrocarbons:
Are there any hydrocarbons, and if so are they oil or gas?First, it is necessary to identify or infer the presence of hydrocarbons in formations traversedby the wellbore.
Where are the hydrocarbons?The depth of formations, which contain accumulations of hydrocarbons, must be identified.
How much hydrocarbon is contained in the formation?An initial approach is to quantify the fractional volume available for hydrocarbonin the formation. This quantity, porosity, is of utmost importance. A second aspect is toquantify the hydrocarbon fraction of the fluids within the rock matrix. The third concerns theareal extent of the bed, or geological body, which contains the hydrocarbon. This last item fallslargely beyond the range of traditional well logging.
How producible are the hydrocarbons?In fact, all the questions really come down to just this one practical concern. Unfortunately, itis the most difficult to answer from inferred formation properties. The most important input isa determination of permeability. Many empirical methods are used to extract this parameterfrom log measurements with varying degrees of success. Another key factor is oil viscosity,often loosely referred to by its weight, as in heavy or light oil.Formation evaluation is essentially performed on a well-by-well basis. A number of measurement devices and interpretation techniques have been developed. They provide,
principally, values of porosity, shaliness and hydrocarbon saturation, as a function of depth,using the knowledge of local geology and fluid properties that is accumulated as a reservoir isdeveloped. Because of the wide variety of subsurface geological formations, many differentlogging tools are needed to give the best possible combination of measurements for the rock type anticipated. Despite the availability of this rather large number of devices, each providingcomplementary information, the final answers derived are mainly three: the location of oil-bearing and gas-bearing formations, an estimate of their producibility, and an assessment of thequantity of hydrocarbon in place in the reservoir.
In the most straightforward application, the purpose of well logging is to
provide measurements,which can be related to the volume fraction and type of hydrocarbon present in porous formations.Measurement techniques are used from three broad disciplines: electrical, nuclear, and acoustic.Usually a measurement is sensitive either to the properties of the rock or to the pore-filling fluid.
Uses of well logging in petroleum engineering
. (Adapted from Pickett)Logging applications for petroleum engineeringRock typingIdentification of geological environmentReservoir fluid contact locationFracture detectionEstimate of hydrocarbon in placeEstimate of recoverable hydrocarbonDetermination of water salinityReservoir pressure determinationPorosity/pore size distribution determinationWater flood feasibilityReservoir quality mappingInterzone fluid communication probabilityReservoir fluid movement monitoring

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