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Switching Power Supply Theory and Applications

Switching Power Supply Theory and Applications

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©
Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2002
April, 2002 – Rev. 31
Publication Order Number:
AN920/D
 AN920/DTheory and Applicationsof the MC34063 and
m
 A78S40 SwitchingRegulator Control Circuits
Prepared by: Jade Alberkrack
ON Semiconductor
This paper describes in detail the principle of operation of the MC34063 and
µ
A78S40 switching regulator subsystems. Severalconverter design examples and numerous applications circuits with test data are included.
INTRODUCTION
The MC34063 and
µ
A78S40 are monolithic switchingregulator subsystems intended for use as dc to dc converters.These devices represent a significant advancement in theease of implementing highly efficient and yet simpleswitching power supplies. The use of switching regulatorsis becoming more pronounced over that of linear regulatorsbecause the size reductions in new equipment designsrequire greater conversion efficiency. Another majoradvantage of the switching regulator is that it has increasedapplication flexibility of output voltage. The output can beless than, greater than, or of opposite polarity to that of theinput voltage.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
In order to understand the difference in operation betweenlinear and switching regulators we must compare the block diagrams of the two step–down regulators shown in Figure1. The linear regulator consists of a stable reference, a highgain error amplifier, and a variable resistance series–passelement. The error amplifier monitors the output voltagelevel, compares it to the reference and generates a linearcontrol signal that varies between two extremes, saturationand cutoff. This signal is used to vary the resistance of theseries–pass element in a corrective fashion in order tomaintain a constant output voltage under varying inputvoltage and output load conditions.The switching regulator consists of a stable reference anda high gain error amplifier identical to that of the linearregulator. This system differs in that a free running oscillatorand a gated latch have been added. The error amplifier againmonitors the output voltage, compares it to the referencelevel and generates a control signal. If the output voltage isbelow nominal, the control signal will go to a high state andturn on the gate, thus allowing the oscillator clock pulses todrive the series–pass element alternately from cutoff tosaturation. This will continue until the output voltage ispumped up slightly above its nominal value. At this time, thecontrol signal will go low and turn off the gate, terminatingany further switching of the series–pass element. The outputvoltage will eventually decrease to below nominal due to thepresence of an external load, and will initiate the switchingprocess again. The increase in conversion efficiency isprimarily due to the operation of the series–pass elementonly in the saturated or cutoff state. The voltage drop acrossthe element, when saturated, is small as is the dissipation.When in cutoff, the current through the element and likewisethe power dissipation are also small. There are othervariations of switching control. The most common are thefixed frequency pulse width modulator and the fixedon–time variable off–time types, where the on–off switching is uninterrupted and regulation is achieved byduty cycle control. Generally speaking, the example givenin Figure 1b does apply to MC34063 and
µ
A78S40.
Figure 1. Step–Down Regulators
+ – V
in
V
out
RefVoltageErrorAmpLinear ControlSignal+ – V
in
V
out
RefVoltageErrorAmpDigitalControl SignalGatedLatchOSC
a. Linear Regulatorb. Switching Regulator
APPLICATION NOTE
http://onsemi.com
 
AN920/D
http://onsemi.com
2
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The MC34063 series is a monolithic control circuitcontaining all the active functions required for dc to dcconverters. This device contains an internal temperaturecompensated reference, comparator, controlled duty cycleoscillator with an active peak current limit circuit, driver,and a high current output switch. This series was specificallydesigned to be incorporated in step–up, step–down andvoltage–inverting converter applications. These functionsare contained in an 8–pin dual in–line package shown inFigure 2a.The
µ
A78S40 is identical to the MC34063 with theaddition of an on–board power catch diode, and anuncommitted operational amplifier. This device is in a16–pin dual in–line package which allows the reference andthe noninverting input of the comparator to be pinned out.These additional features greatly enhance the flexibility of this part and allow the implementation of more sophisticatedapplications. These may include series–pass regulation of the main output or of a derived second output voltage, atracking regulator configuration or even a second switchingregulator.
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The oscillator is composed of a current source and sink which charges and discharges the external timing capacitorC
T
between an upper and lower preset threshold. The typicalcharge and discharge currents are 35
µ
A and 200
µ
Arespectively, yielding about a one to six ratio. Thus theramp–up period is six times longer than that of theramp–down as shown in Figure 3. The upper threshold isequal to the internal reference voltage of 1.25 V and thelower is approximately equal to 0.75 V. The oscillator runscontinuously at a rate controlled by the selected value of C
T
.During the ramp–up portion of the cycle, a Logic “1” ispresent at the “A” input of the AND gate. If the outputvoltage of the switching regulator is below nominal, a Logic“1” will also be present at the “B” input. This condition willset the latch and cause the “Q” output to go to a Logic “1”,enabling the driver and output switch to conduct. When theoscillator reaches its upper threshold, C
T
will start todischarge and Logic “0” will be present at the “A” input of the AND gate. This logic level is also connected to aninverter whose output presents a Logic “1” to the reset inputof the latch. This condition will cause “Q” to go low,disabling the driver and output switch. A logic truth table of these functional blocks is shown in Figure 4.The output of the comparator can set the latch only duringthe ramp–up of C
T
and can initiate a partial or full on–cycleof output switch conduction. Once the comparator has setthe latch, it cannot reset it. The latch will remain set until C
T
begins ramping down. Thus the comparator can initiateoutput switch conduction, but cannot terminate it and thelatch is always reset when C
T
begins ramping down. Thecomparator’s output will be at a Logic “0” when the outputvoltage of the switching regulator is above nominal. Underthese conditions, the comparator’s output can inhibit aportion of the output switch on–cycle, a complete cycle, acomplete cycle plus a portion of one cycle, multiple cycles,or multiple cycles plus a portion of one cycle.
Figure 2. Functional Block Diagrams
87651234Q1Q2SRQLatchBASwitchCollectorSwitchEmitterTimingCapacitorGroundDriveCollectorI
pk
SenseV
CC
ComparatorInvertingInputI
pk
C
T
OSC+ – 1.25 VReferenceRegulator
a. MC34063b.
m
A78S40
98107116125134143152161
   S  w   i   t  c   h   C  o   l   l  e  c   t  o  r   D  r   i  v  e  r   C  o   l   l  e  c   t  o  r   I
  p   k
   S  e  n  s  e   V
   C   C
   T   i  m   i  n  g   C  a  p  a  c   i   t  o  r   G   N   D   I  n  v  e  r   t   i  n  g   I  n  p  u   t   N  o  n   i  n  v  e  r   t   i  n  g   I  n  p  u   t   D   i  o   d  e   C  a   t   h  o   d  e   D   i  o   d  e   A  n  o   d  e   V
   C   C
   O  p   A  m  p   I  n  v  e  r   t   i  n  g   I  n  p  u   t   R  e   f   O  u   t  p  u   t   N  o  n   i  n  v  e  r   t   i  n  g   I  n  p  u   t   O  u   t  p  u   t   S  w   i   t  c   h   E  m   i   t   t  e  r
1.25 VRefC
T
I
pk
OSC
      +      –
D1170AB
      +      –
SRQLatchOpAmpCompGNDComp170
Figure 3. C
T
Voltage Waveform
VtUpper Threshold 1.25 V TypicalLower Threshold 0.75 V TypicaltDischarge6t Charge
 
AN920/D
http://onsemi.com
3ActiveConditionofAND Gate InputsLatch InputsOututcve onon oTiming Capacitor, C
T
ABSRu
 
puSwitchComments on State of Output Switch
Begins RampUp000Switching regulators output is
nominal(‘B’ = 0).Begins RampDown000No change since Bwas 0 before C
T
Ramp– Down.Ramping Down0010No change even though switching regulatorsoutput < nominal. Output switch cannot beinitiated during R
T
Ramp–Down.Ramping Down0010No change since output switch conductionwas terminated when ‘A’ went to 0.Ramping Up10Switching regulators output went < nominalduring C
T
Ramp–Up (‘B’
1). Partial on– cycle for output switch.Ramping Up101Switching regulators output went
nominal(‘B’
0) during C
T
Ramp–Up. No changesince ‘B’ cannot reset latch.Begins RampUp1Complete oncycle since Bwas 1 before C
T
started Ramp–Up.Begins RampDown1Output switch conduction is always termi-nated whenever C
T
is Ramping Down.
Figure 4. Logic Truth Table of Functional Blocks
Current limiting is accomplished by monitoring thevoltage drop across an external sense resistor placed in serieswith V
CC
and the output switch. The voltage drop developedacross this resistor is monitored by the I
pk 
Sense pin. Whenthis voltage becomes greater than 330 mV, the current limitcircuitry provides an additional current path to charge thetiming capacitor C
T
. This causes it to rapidly reach the upperoscillator threshold, thereby shortening the time of outputswitch conduction and thus reducing the amount of energystored in the inductor. This can be observed as an increasein the slope of the charging portion of the C
T
voltagewaveform as shown in Figure 5. Operation of the switchingregulator in an overload or shorted condition will cause avery short but finite time of output conduction followed byeither a normal or extended off–time internal provided bythe oscillator ramp–down time of C
T
. The extended intervalis the result of charging C
T
beyond the upper oscillatorthreshold by overdriving the current limit sense input. Thiscan be caused by operating the switching regulator with aseverely overloaded or shorted output or having the inputvoltage grossly above the nominal design value.
Quiescent OperationStartup
Figure 5. Typical Operating Waveforms
Comparator OutputTiming Capacitor, C
T
Output SwitchNominal Output VoltageLevelOutput VoltageOnOff10

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