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Tips for Energy Conservation for Industries

Tips for Energy Conservation for Industries

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Published by Md Abdul Raheman
Tips for Energy Conservation for Industries : includes a) Thermal utilities such as boilers, steam systems , furnaces etc.
b) Electrical utilities such ac motors, drives, fans, compressors, chillers etc.
Tips for Energy Conservation for Industries : includes a) Thermal utilities such as boilers, steam systems , furnaces etc.
b) Electrical utilities such ac motors, drives, fans, compressors, chillers etc.

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Published by: Md Abdul Raheman on Jul 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Tips for Energy Conservation for Industries
THERMAL UTILITIESBoilers
Preheat combustion air with waste heat
(22 
C reduction in flue gas temperature increases boiler efficiency by 1%).
Use variable speed drives on large boiler combustion air fans withvariable flows.
Burn wastes if permitted.
Insulate exposed heated oil tanks.
Clean burners, nozzles, strainers, etc.
Inspect oil heaters for proper oil temperature.
Close burner air and/or stack dampers when the burner is off to minimize heat lossup the stack.
Improve oxygen trim control (e.g. -- limit excess air to less than 10% on clean fuels).
(5% reduction in excess air increases boiler efficiency by 1% or: 1% reduction of residual oxygen in stack gas increases boiler efficiency by 1%.)
Automate/optimize boiler blowdown. Recover boiler blowdown heat.
Use boiler blowdown to help warm the back-up boiler.
Optimize deaerator venting.
Inspect door gaskets.
Inspect for scale and sediment on the water side(A 1 mm thick scale (deposit) on the water side could increase fuel consumption by 5to 8%).
Inspect for soot, flyash, and slag on the fire side
(A 3 mm thick soot deposition on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel consumption to the tune of 2.5%.)
Optimize boiler water treatment.
Add an economizer to preheat boiler feedwater using exhaust heat.
Recycle steam condensate.
Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficientmode for operating multiple boilers.
Consider multiple or modular boiler units instead of one or two large boilers.
Establish a boiler efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit andfollow-up, then make a boiler efficiency-maintenance program a part of yourcontinuous energy management program.
Steam System
Fix steam leaks and condensate leaks
(A 3 mm diameter hole on a pipe line carrying 7 kg/cm 
steam would waste 33 kilo litres of fuel oil per year).
 
Accumulate work orders for repair of steam leaks that can't be fixedduring the heating season due to system shutdown requirements. Tageach such leak with a durable tag with a good description.
Use back pressure steam turbines to produce lower steam pressures.
Use more-efficient steam desuperheating methods.
Ensure process temperatures are correctly controlled.
Maintain lowest acceptable process steam pressures.
Reduce hot water wastage to drain.
Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi
1
 
 
Remove or blank off all redundant steam piping.
Ensure condensate is returned or re-used in the process
(6 
C raise in feed water temperature by economiser/condensate recovery corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption, in boiler).
 
Preheat boiler feed-water.
Recover boiler blowdown.
Check operation of steam traps.
Remove air from indirect steam using equipment(0.25 mm thick air film offers the same resistance to heat transfer as a 330 mm thickcopper wall.)
Inspect steam traps regularly and repair malfunctioning traps promptly.
Consider recovery of vent steam (e.g. -- on large flash tanks).
Use waste steam for water heating.
Use an absorption chiller to condense exhaust steam before returning thecondensate to the boiler.
Use electric pumps instead of steam ejectors when cost benefits permit
Establish a steam efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit andfollow-up, then make a steam efficiency-maintenance program a part of yourcontinuous energy management program.
Furnaces
Check against infiltration of air: Use doors or air curtains.
Monitor O
2
/CO
2
 /CO and control excess air to the optimum level.
Improve burner design, combustion control and instrumentation.
Ensure that the furnace combustion chamber is under slightpositive pressure.
Use ceramic fibres in the case of batch operations.
Match the load to the furnace capacity.
Retrofit with heat recovery device.
Investigate cycle times and reduce.
Provide temperature controllers.
Ensure that flame does not touch the stock.
Insulation
Repair damaged insulation
(A bare steam pipe of 150 mm diameter and 100 m length,carrying saturated steam at 8 kg/cm 
would waste 25,000 litres furnace oil in a year.)
Insulate any hot or cold metal or insulation.
Replace wet insulation.
Use an infrared gun to check for cold wall areas during coldweather or hot wall areas during hot weather.
Ensure that all insulated surfaces are cladded with aluminum
Insulate all flanges, valves and couplings
Insulate open tanks
(70% heat losses can be reduced by floating a layer of 45 mm diameter polypropylene (plastic) balls on the surface of 90 
C hot liquid/condensate).
Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi
2
 
 
Waste heat recovery
 
Recover heat from flue gas, engine cooling water, engineexhaust, low pressure waste steam, drying oven exhaust,boiler blowdown, etc.
Recover heat from incinerator off-gas.
Use waste heat for fuel oil heating, boiler feedwater heating,outside air heating, etc.
Use chiller waste heat to preheat hot water.
Use heat pumps.
Use absorption refrigeration.
Use thermal wheels, run-around systems, heat pipe systems, and air-to-airexchangers.
ELECTRICAL UTILITIESElectricity Distribution System
Optimise the tariff structure with utility supplier
Schedule your operations to maintain a high load factor
Shift loads to off-peak times if possible.
Minimise maximum demand by tripping loads through a demandcontroller
Stagger start-up times for equipment with large starting currents tominimize load peaking.
Use standby electric generation equipment for on-peak high load periods.
Correct power factor to at least 0.90 under rated load conditions.
Relocate transformers close to main loads.
Set transformer taps to optimum settings.
Disconnect primary power to transformers that do not serve any active loads
Consider on-site electric generation or cogeneration.
Export power to grid if you have any surplus in your captive generation
Check utility electric meter with your own meter.
Shut off unnecessary computers, printers, and copiers at night.
Motors
Properly size to the load for optimum efficiency.
(High efficiency motors offer of 4 - 5% higher efficiency than standard motors)
Use energy-efficient motors where economical.
Use synchronous motors to improve power factor.
Check alignment.
Provide proper ventilation
(For every 10 
C increase in motor operating temperature over recommended peak,the motor life is estimated to be halved)
Check for under-voltage and over-voltage conditions.
Balance the three-phase power supply.(An imbalanced voltage can reduce 3 - 5% in motor input power)
Demand efficiency restoration after motor rewinding.
(If rewinding is not done properly, the efficiency can be reduced by 5 - 8%)
Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi
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