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Table Of Contents

Preface
1.Introduction
1.1 Why transformer testing?
1.2 Types of tests
1.3 Test sequence
1.4 Remarks concerning this test book
2.Dielectric integrity and its verification
2.1 References / Standards
2.2 General
2.3 Voltages appearing during operation
2.5 Test voltages
2.6 Test requirements
2.7 Examples for dielectric routine tests
Appendix A 2
A 2.1Examples
3.Measurement of winding resistance
3.1 References / Standards
3.2 Purpose of the test
3.3 General
3.6 Interpretation of the measured values
3.7 Examples
3.8 Uncertainty in resistance measurements
Appendix A 3
A 3.1General requirements on equipment
A 3.2Value of the DC-current of measurement
A 3.3Kelvin (Thomson) measuring circuit
A 3.4Examples
4.1 References / Standards
4.2 Purpose of measurement
4.3 General
4.4 Measuring the voltage ratio
4.5 Test circuit
4.6 Measuring procedure
4.7 Measuring uncertainty
Appendix A 4
A 4.1Determination and localization of errors
5.1 References / Standards
5.2 Purpose of the test
5.3 General
5.4 Measuring circuit
5.5 Measuring procedure
5.6 Evaluation of the measuring results
5.7 Measuring uncertainty
A 5.3Measuring equipment requirements
A 5.4Instrument error correction
A 5.5Instrument transformer error correction
A 5.7Connection for investigation tests
A 5.8Examples
6.1 References / standards
6.2 Purpose of measurement
6.3 General
6.4 Measuring circuit
6.5 Measuring procedure
6.6 Evaluation of the measuring results
6.7 Measuring uncertainty
Appendix A 6
A 6.1Measuring equipment specification
A 6.3Preliminary measurements of the iron core
7.3 General
7.4 Principle and measuring circuit
7.5 Measuring procedure
7.6 Measuring Uncertainty
A 7.1.2Compensation requirement
8.Induced voltage tests
8.1 References / Standards:
8.2 Purpose of the test
8.3 General
8.4 Principle and test circuit
8.5 Measuring procedure
8.6 Measuring uncertainty
9.Partial Discharge Measurements
9.1 References / Standards:
9.2 Purpose of measurement
9.3 General
9.4.Principle of PD measurement
9.5 PD measurement on transformers
9.6 PD measuring procedure
9.7 Procedure for Investigation of PD sources
9.8 Detection of acoustic PD signals
9.9 Detailed investigation of the PD source
9.10Measuring uncertainty
A 9.2Principle of quasi-integration
A 9.4Typical external noise sources
A 9.5Advanced PD system
A 9.6Detection of acoustic PD signals
A 9.8Corona shielding
10.1References / Standards
10.2Purpose of the test
10.3General
10.4Impulse shape
10.5Test connections
10.6Test procedure / recordings
10.7Assessing the test results and failure detection
A 10.1Waveshape and its assessment
A 10.2Generation of high impulse voltages
A 10.3Pre-calculation of impulse waveform
A 10.5Measuring high impulse voltages
A 10.6Calibrating the impulse voltage divider ratio
A 10.8Measuring the impulse current
A 10.9Earthing the impulse circuit
A 10.10Switching impulse wave form
A 10.11Air withstand
A 10.12Impulse voltage stress on power transformers
A 11.1Definitions, temperature and temperature-rise
A 11.2Other test methods for temperature rise test
A 12.1Example for an unbalanced three-phase system
A 12.2Types of zero-sequence impedance
A 12.4Examples and interpretation
14.Sound level measurement
14.1References / Standards
14.2Purpose of measurement
14.3General [7], [51], [106]
14.4Measurement and measuring circuit
14.6Measuring uncertainties
A 14.1Human perception of sound [106]
A 14.3Addition of no-load sound and load sound [7]
A 14.4Definitions [7]
A 14.6The calculation of sound power level, example
A 14.7Far-field calculations
15.1References / Standards
15.2The purpose of the test / General
15.3Test procedure [1] / Test circuit
15.4Testing auxiliary equipment [3],[50]
16.1References / Standards
16.2The purpose of measurement
16.4The measuring circuit [100]
16.5The measuring procedure
A 16.2Example
A 18.1Examples:
References / Bibliography
Standards
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
IEEE / ANSI Standards
Technical Reviews
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Testing of Power Transformers

Testing of Power Transformers

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Published by: Yurika Roque Sarmiento on Jul 16, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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