Q-IV: low initiating structure and low consideration.
The University of Michigan
studies were called production centeredleadership and employee tasks and the methods used to accomplishthem.
The production centered leaders
here set tight work standards,organize tasks carefully, prescribe work methods to be followed andclosely supervise their subordinate’s work,
The employee-centered leaders
emphasize the employee’spersonal needs and the development of interpersonal relationship.He takes interest in everyone.
Behavioral approach in leadership is seen in
McGregor’s (1960)Theory X and Theory Y
. According to these theories, there are twobasic classes of people: those who want to lead and take responsibilities.
assumes that man is inherently lazy, dislikes work andavoids it whenever possible as a result, leaders are authoritarian.
style of leadership is based on Maslow’s (1934) concept of self actualization. It considers that work can be enjoyable, people willwork hard and assume responsibility if they have the opportunity tosatisfy their personal needs while at the same time achievingorganizational goals, an individual’s performance is actually based oninnate rather than external controls.
The Managerial Grid Leadership Styles
by Blake andMouton (1969)
used the task accomplishment (production) andrelationship (concern for people) extensively. The approach concernedfor people and production evolves five types of leadership styles in themanagerial grid. The Five leadership styles are found in the grid are asfollow:
is the exertion of minimum effort toaccomplish the work. It is an ineffective style of leadership;
Country club style
refers to thoughtful attention to needs of peoplefor satisfying relationships leading to a comfortable friendlyorganization atmosphere and work tempo;
has efficiency in operations which results from arrangingconditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to aminimum degree;