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Research on Leadership

Research on Leadership

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Published by Dr. Santosh Bagwe
Explain briefly various research on ledership
Explain briefly various research on ledership

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Published by: Dr. Santosh Bagwe on Jul 16, 2012
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08/18/2013

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Various Researches on Leadership
 The Concept of leadership is clearly understood through its three theoriesbased on
A)
 Trait,
B)
Behavior and
C)
Situation.
Personality Traits:
It was
Stogdill (1974)
who identified several general factors whichdifferentiate leaders from non – Leaders due to personality traits. They are
-
Capacity to solve problems, make judgments-Dependability-Reliability-Self Drive-Perseverance-Aggressiveness-Self Confidence-Participation and involvement in highly developed social interactions-Adaptation to changing situation, socio-economic status
 
Behavior Theories:
 Three widely known studies of classic behavioral theories of leadership wereconducted at the University of Lowa, Ohio State University and University of Michigan.
1)
In
Lowa studies (Lewin 1939)
, the researchers manipulated threeleadership styles to determine their effect on the attitudes andproductivity of subordinates.
a)
Authoritarian leadership
has leaders who were very directive andallowed no participation in decision. Leaders took full authority andassumed full responsibility from initiation to task completion.
 b)
Democratic leadership
encourages group discussion and decisionmaking. Subordinates were informed about conditions affecting their jobs and encouraged to express their ideas and making suggestions.
c)
Laissez – faire leadership
gives complete freedom to the groupand left subordinate to make individual decisions on their own.
2)
The Ohio State University
studies initiated in 1945, answered thetypes of behavior leaders display and the effects of these behavior ongroup performance and satisfaction. Two behaviors of leaders came out as initiating Structure andConsideration.
a)
Initiating structure (task behavior) leader
focus directly onorganizational performance goals, organizes and defines tasks,assigns work, establishes channel of communication, delineatesrelationship with subordinates and evaluates work groupperformance.
 b)
Consideration (relationship behavior) leader
exhibits trust,respect, warmth, support, and concern for the welfare of subordinates. The two dimensional theory of leader behavior that evolved from theOhio State leadership studies represents a widely accepted research –based approach to the study and practice of leadership. Thesedimension initiating structure and consideration were independent andhad resulted in four leadership behaviors that can be represented in aquadrant figure such as:Q-I: high initiating structure and low consideration;Q-II: high initiating structure and high consideration;Q-III: low initiating structure and high consideration;
 
Q-IV: low initiating structure and low consideration.
3)
The University of Michigan
studies were called production centeredleadership and employee tasks and the methods used to accomplishthem.
a)
The production centered leaders
here set tight work standards,organize tasks carefully, prescribe work methods to be followed andclosely supervise their subordinate’s work,
 b)
The employee-centered leaders
emphasize the employee’spersonal needs and the development of interpersonal relationship.He takes interest in everyone.
4)
Behavioral approach in leadership is seen in
McGregor’s (1960)Theory X and Theory Y 
. According to these theories, there are twobasic classes of people: those who want to lead and take responsibilities.
a)
Theory X
assumes that man is inherently lazy, dislikes work andavoids it whenever possible as a result, leaders are authoritarian.
 b)
Theory Y 
style of leadership is based on Maslow’s (1934) concept of self actualization. It considers that work can be enjoyable, people willwork hard and assume responsibility if they have the opportunity tosatisfy their personal needs while at the same time achievingorganizational goals, an individual’s performance is actually based oninnate rather than external controls.
5)
The Managerial Grid Leadership Styles
developed
by Blake andMouton (1969)
used the task accomplishment (production) andrelationship (concern for people) extensively. The approach concernedfor people and production evolves five types of leadership styles in themanagerial grid. The Five leadership styles are found in the grid are asfollow:
a)
 
Impoverished style
is the exertion of minimum effort toaccomplish the work. It is an ineffective style of leadership;
 b)
Country club style
refers to thoughtful attention to needs of peoplefor satisfying relationships leading to a comfortable friendlyorganization atmosphere and work tempo;
c)
Task style
has efficiency in operations which results from arrangingconditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to aminimum degree;

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