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pumps04.doc

pumps04.doc

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WORKBOOK - PIPES, FITTINGS, VALVES AND PUMPS- STEP 5
PUMPS; The Heart of the Process
Chemical industry relies more heavily on pumps than any other piece of equipment. They areindispensable for moving fluids throughout the process. A pump converts mechanical energy, usually supplied by an electric motor, into fluid energy bypushing the fluid along the system. All pumps operate by creating a partial vacuum at the intake(entrance) and a mechanical force at the outlet (discharge). The resulting fluid energy may beused to increase the pressure, the velocity, or the elevation of the fluid. Although there are many different types of pumps, they can all be grouped into two categories;positive displacement pumps and kinetic (or dynamic) pumps.In positive displacement pumps, one cycle or revolution of the pump causes a fixed quantity or volume of fluid to pass through the pump. Theoretically, the flow of a positive displacementpump depends only on its size and speed. The size determines the amount of fluid moved per revolution and the speed determines the number of revolutions per unit time.Kinetic or dynamic pumps, commonly called ‘centrifugal pumps’, depend not only on size andspeed but also on resistance to flow in the discharge (outlet) line. As discharge resistanceincreases (the back pressure against the pump increases), the amount of fluid that passesthrough the pump decreases. A characteristic difference of great importance is the result of pumping with a closed valve in thedischarge line of a pump. Centrifugal pumps have large clearances (have space between parts)allowing slip within the pump. The output of a centrifugal pump decreases rapidly to zeroagainst a closed valve. As a result, no damage occurs to the pump or discharge piping.Positive displacement pumps are designed to have tight clearances (have little space betweenparts) that minimize slip within the pump. Operating a positive displacement pump with a closeddischarge line has disastrous consequences. The discharge pressure rapidly increases againsta closed valve since there is no place for the fluid to go. The pressure will continue to rise untileither the pump or piping rupture.Positive displacement pumps are the most important type in mechanical applications, e.g.,pumping hydraulic fluids, however, centrifugal pumps are the workhorse of chemicalmanufacturing and food processing industries.Positive displacement pumps are usually used for low-volume, medium to high pressureapplications of 500 psi (3.5 MPa) and up, whereas centrifugal pumps are favored in high-volume, low-pressure applications (up to 600 psi or 4MPa). Positive displacement pumps areused where pressure is of primary concern and centrifugal pumps are favored in high volume,low maintenance applications.Centrifugal pumps have a relatively simple design and few moving parts, so that they are lessexpensive to purchase and require less maintenance than positive displacement pumps.
PIPES, FITTINGS, VALVES AND PUMPS SELF STUDY UNITPage
35 of 53
 
Positive Displacement Pumps
Despite the close tolerances in positive displacement pumps, a small amount of slippageoccurs; the actual flow is slightly less than theoretical. The actual flow rate divided by thetheoretical flow rate is the ‘volumetric efficiency’. Most positive displacement pumps have avolumetric efficiency between 85 and 98 percent.
%100FlowlTheoreticaFlowAcutalEfficiencyVolumetric
×=
Positive displacement pumps are generally rated by their maximum operating pressure and their output in gallons per minute at a given drive speed. For example, a pump may be nominallyrated as a 50 gpm (13.6 m
3
/h) unit. Under no load conditions, the pump can deliver considerably more than 50 gpm, but less than 50 gpm at its rated operating pressure.Positive displacement pumps can be subdivided two types depending on construction; i.e.,reciprocating and rotary. Examples of these two types are shown below.Positive Displacement Pumps
Reciprocating PumpsRotary Pumps
Diaphragm pumpsGear pumpsPiston pumpsScrew pumpsPlunger pumpsVane pumps
PIPES, FITTINGS, VALVES AND PUMPS SELF STUDY UNITPage
36 of 53
 
Reciprocating Pumps
Diaphragm Pumps
contain a flexible membrane which ispushed and pulled back and forth. As the diaphragm movesbackwards, liquid is sucked into a chamber, then as thediaphragm flexes forward, the liquid discharges from thechamber. The direction of flow is determined by checkvalves. One of the main advantages of diaphragm pumps isthat the driving mechanism is completely isolated from thefluid being pumped, so the diaphragm pump is particularlyadvantageous where leakage and/or contamination of aprocess fluid cannot be tolerated. A diaphragm pump usually has adjustments for speed and stroke-length. It can pump at high pressures and so is commonly used for fluid injection applications. A familiar example is as a liquidchlorine pump for swimming pools.Diaphragm pumps are subject to check valve wear and areparticularly prone to failure if solids, abrasives, or dirt are present inthe liquid being pumped.
PIPES, FITTINGS, VALVES AND PUMPS SELF STUDY UNITPage
37 of 53
 
Warren RuppDiaphragm Pump
 
Warren RuppDiaphragm PumpTapfloDiaphragm Pump
 
TapfloDiaphragm Pump
diaphragm (flexible membranes)

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