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Euclidean Geometry Notes

# Euclidean Geometry Notes

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09/20/2013

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Chapter 1
Pythagoras Theoremand Its Applications
1.1 Pythagoras Theorem and its converse
1.1.1 Pythagoras Theorem
The lengths
a
b < c
of the sides of a right triangle satisfy the relation
a
2
+
b
2
=
c
2
.
bab aabababa babccccccba
1.1.2 Converse Theorem
If the lengths of the sides of a triangles satisfy the relation
a
2
+
b
2
=
c
2
, thenthe triangle contains a right angle.1

YIU: Euclidean Geometry
2
abcabYXZBCA
Proof.
Let
ABC
be a triangle with
BC
=
a
,
CA
=
b
, and
AB
=
c
satisfy-ing
a
2
+
b
2
=
c
2
. Consider another triangle
XY
with
Y
=
a, X
=
b,
6
XZY
= 90
.
By the Pythagorean theorem,
XY
2
=
a
2
+
b
2
=
c
2
, so that
XY
=
c
.Thus the triangles
4
ABC
4
XY
by the SSS test. This means that
6
ACB
=
6
XZY
is a right angle.
Exercise
1. Dissect two given squares into triangles and quadrilaterals and re-arrange the pieces into a square.2.
BC
and
CD
are equilateral triangles inside a rectangle
ABCD
.The lines
AX
and
AY
are extended to intersect
BC
and
CD
respec-tively at
and
Q
. Show that(a)
APQ
is an equilateral triangle;(b)
4
APB
+
4
=
4
CPQ
.
PQYXCDBA

YIU: Euclidean Geometry
33.
ABC
is a triangle with a right angle at
. If the median on the side
a
is the geometric mean of the sides
b
and
c
, show that
c
= 3
b
.4. (a) Suppose
c
=
a
+
kb
for a right triangle with legs
a
,
b
, and hypotenuse
c
. Show that 0
< k <
1, and
a
:
b
:
c
= 1
k
2
: 2
k
: 1 +
k
2
.
(b) Find two right triangles which are not similar, each satisfying
c
=
34
a
+
45
b
.
1
5.
ABC
is a triangle with a right angle at
. If the median on the side
c
is the geometric mean of the sides
a
and
b
, show that one of the acuteangles is 15
.6. Let
ABC
be a right triangle with a right angle at vertex
. Let
CXPY
be a square with
on the hypotenuse, and
,
on the sides.Show that the length
t
of a side of this square is given by1
t
=1
a
+1
b.
ttabdab1/a + 1/b = 1/t.1/a^2 + 1/b^2 = 1/d^2.
1
a
:
b
:
c
= 12 : 35 : 37 or 12 : 5 : 13. More generally, for
h
k
, there is, up tosimilarity, a unique right triangle satisfying
c
=
ha
+
kb
provided(i)
h <
1
k
, or(ii)
√
22
h
=
k <
1, or(iii)
h,k >
0,
h
2
+
k
2
= 1.There are two such right triangles if 0
< h < k <
1
, h
2
+
k
2
>
1
.