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Lemaître coordinates

Lemaître coordinates

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Published by Paul Muljadi
Lemaître coordinates
Lemaître coordinates

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Published by: Paul Muljadi on Jul 17, 2012
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01/23/2014

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Lemaître coordinates1
Lemaître coordinates
Lemaître coordinates
are a particular set of coordinates for the Schwarzschild metric
 —
a spherically symmetricsolution to vacuum Einstein equation
 —
obtained by Georges Lemaître in 1938.
[1][2]
Changing to Lemaîtrecoordinates removes the coordinate singularity at the Schwarzschild radius, which is present in Schwarzschildcoordinates.
The Lemaître coordinates
The original Schwarzschild coordinate expression of the Schwarzschild metric, in natural units (
c
=
G
= 1), is givenaswhereis the invariant interval;is the gravitational radius;is the mass of the central body;are the Schwarzschild coordinates (which asymptotically turn into the flat spherical coordinates);is the speed of light;and is the gravitational constant.This metric has a coordinate singularity at the gravitational radius .Georges Lemaître was the first to show that this is not a real physical singularity but simply a manifestation of thefact that the static Schwarzschild coordinates cannot be realized with material bodies inside the gravitational radius.Indeed inside the gravitational radius everything falls towards the centre and it is impossible for a physical body tokeep a constant radius.A transformation of the Schwarzschild coordinate system from to the new coordinates(notice that the numerator and denominator are switched inside the square-roots),leads to the Lemaître coordinate expression of the metric,whereIn Lemaître coordinates there is no singularity at the gravitational radius, which instead corresponds to the point. However, there remains a genuine gravitational singularity at the centrum, where ,which cannot be removed by a coordinate change.The Lemaître coordinate system is synchronous, that is, the global time coordinate of the metric defines the propertime of co-moving observers. The radially falling bodies reach the gravitational radius and the centre within finiteproper time.Along the tragectory of a radial light ray,
 
Lemaître coordinates2therefore no signal can escape from inside the Schwarzschild radius, where always and the light raysemitted radially inwards and outwards both end up at the origin.
References
[1]L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz.
The Classical Theory of Fields
. Course of Theoretical Physics.
Vol. 2
.[2][2]Andre Gsponer (2004). "More on the early interpretation of the Schwarzschild solution". arXiv:physics/0408100 [physics.hist-ph].

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