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Feedback Control System Lec 21

# Feedback Control System Lec 21

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07/17/2012

pdf

text

original

Topic

#21

16.30/31

Feedback

Control

Systems

Systems

with

Nonlinear

Functions

Describing

Function

Analysis

Fall

2010

16.30/31

21–2
NL

Example
Another

classic

example

Van

Der

Pol

equation
:

x
¨ +

α
(
x

2

1)˙
x

+

x

= 0

which

can

be

written

as

linear

system

α

G
(
s
) =

s
2

αs

+ 1
in

negative

feedback

with

a

nonlinear

function

(
x,x
˙)

=

x
2
x
˙
0

(
x,
˙
x
)

G
(
s
)
x
(
t
)

(
t
)

x
(
t
)

Would

expect

to

see

diﬀerent

behaviors

from

the

system

depending

on

the

value

of

α

32101234−4−3−2−101234
x
˙
x

α
=1
α
=2
α
=0.2

Of

particular

concern

is

the

existence

of

a

limit

cycle

response

Sustained

oscillation

for

a

nonlinear

system,

of

the

type

above

1
Slotine

and

Li,

page

158

November

23,

2010

Fall

2010
16.30/31

21–3

In

this

case

the

signal

x
(
t
)

would

be

of

the

form

of

an

oscillation

x
(
t
) =

A

sin(
ωt
)

so

that

x
˙(
t
) =

cos(
ωt
)

Note

that

A

and

ω

are

not

known,

and

may

not

actually

exist.

Given

the

form

of

x
(
t
)
,

we

have

that

(
t
) =

x

2

x
˙ =

A
2

sin
2
(
ωt
)

cos(
ωt
)

A
3
ω

=

4

(cos(
ωt
)

cos(3
ωt
))

Thus

the

output

of

the

nonlinearity

(input

of

the

linear

part)

contains

the

third

harmonic

of

the

input

Key

point:

since

the

system

G
(
s
)

is

low

pass,

expect

that

this

third

harmonic

will

be

“suﬃciently

attenuated”

by

the

linear

system

that

we

can

approximate

A
3
ω

(
t
) =

x

2

x
˙

cos(
ωt
)4

A
2
d

= [
A

sin(
ωt
)]4
dt
Note

that

we

can

now

create

an

eﬀective

“transfer

function”

of

this

nonlinearity

by

deﬁning

that:

A
2
jω

=

(
A,ω
)(
x
)

(
A,ω
) =

4

which

approximates

the

eﬀect

of

the

nonlinearity

as

a

frequency

response

function.

(
A,ω
)

G
(
s
)
x
(
t
)

(
t
)
x
(
t
)0

November

23,

2010

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