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Quasi-Active Power Factor Correction Circuit for Hb Led Driver

Quasi-Active Power Factor Correction Circuit for Hb Led Driver

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Published by: Dimitar Todorov on Jul 17, 2012
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Quasi-Active Power Factor CorrectionCircuit for HB LED Driver
Kening Zhou, Jian Guo Zhang, Subbaraya Yuvarajan
 , Senior Member, IEEE 
, and Da Feng Weng
High brightness light emitting diodes (HB LEDs) arelikely to be used for general lighting applications due to their highefficiency and longer life. The paper presents a quasi-active powerfactorcorrector(PFC)fordrivingastringofHBLEDs.Thesingle-stage PFC circuit has a high efficiency, and it does not increase thevoltage/current stress on the active switch used in the switchingconverter due to PFC. The circuit has two operating modes basedontheinputvoltagelevelanditsfeatures,likepowerfactorcorrec-tion and power balance, are explained. The experimental resultsobtained on a prototype converter along with waveforms are pre-sented.
Driver,lightemittingdiodes(LEDs),powerfactorcorrection (PFC), pulse width modulation, switching converter.
I. I
ITH THE development of high brightness light emittingdiode (HB LED) technology, the output light efficiencyof power LEDs has increased over 100 lumens/W [1]. The HBLED can be used as a solid state light source in general lightingapplications. In addition to high efficiency, it has no mercurycontent and has a longer life. In the future, the power LED islikely to replace the existing lighting sources like the incandes-cent lamp and fluorescent lamp.For lamp drivers in general lighting applications, there areseveralregulations,e.g.,harmoniclimitsontheinputACcurrenthavetomeetClassCregulationsforoutputpowerover25W[2].Since the incandescent lamp is basically a resistor, it is easy tomeet the requirement. For a fluorescent lamp, there are severalpower factor correction (PFC) circuits used in fluorescent lampdrivers or ballasts. It is the power factor correction circuit thatmakes the fluorescent ballast to meet Class C regulation.In general lighting applications, including fluorescent andHB-LED, power factor correction can be achieved using eithera passive circuit or an active circuit. It is difficult to achieve ahigher power factor and lower THD with a passive PFC whichuses only inductors and capacitors, or with a variable inductive
Manuscript received May 9, 2007; revised October 22, 2007. This paper waspresented at the Applied Power Electronics Conference, Anaheim, CA, Feb-ruary 25-March 1, 2007. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor J.M. Alonso.K.ZhouiswiththeZhejiangUniversityofScienceandTechnology,Zhejiang,China.J. G. Zhang is with the ZhejiangUniversity, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.S. Yuvarajan is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, North DakotaState University, Fargo, ND 58105 USA (e-mail: subbaraya.yuvarajan@ndsu.edu).D.F.WengiswithMAXIMIntegratedProducts,Sunnyvale,CA94086USA.Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available onlineat http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2008.921184
filter [3]. The active PFC on the other hand can provide alow THD and a high power factor. Single-switch AC-DC-DCconverters with power factor correction combines boost PFCand forward or flyback converters [4], [5] and with load currentfeedback power control [6]. Active input current shaper isanother solution of single switch AC-DC-DC converter withpower factor correction function [7].Ingeneral,theuseoftwopowerstagesisagoodwaytoimple-mentpowerfactorcorrectionandtobalancetheinputandoutputpowers but it increases the cost. Single power stage with chargepump PFC has been used in the fluorescent AC-DC-AC ballast.For a single power stage AC-DC-DC converter with PFC, it ishardtobalancetheinputandoutputpowers[8]–[11].Also,thereare high voltage and current stresses on the power components.A HB-LED driver (AC-DC-DC Converter) draws power fromAC mains and supplies a DC current to the LED string. ThedriverneedsaDC-DCconvertertoconverttheinputvoltageintoa DC current source and it limits the effectiveness of a chargepump. A single-power-stage AC-DC-DC converter with PFC isone candidate for HB LED drivers. The use of a single powerstage increases the stress on the switch in the DC-DC converterdue to input current and PFC voltage, and there is a power bal-ance problem.This paper presents a quasi-active PFC scheme assisted bya power converter feeding a string of HB LEDs [12]. In theproposed quasi-active PFC scheme which precedes a drivingpower stage, a passive circuit is used to implement power factorcorrection function. The input current or PFC voltage stress isnot added on to the active switch used in the following power(DC/DC) converter. It is the passive circuit implementing PFCfunctionthatincreasesthereliabilityandlowersthecost.Itisthefollowing power converter driving the passive PFC circuit thatmakes the size of the components in the passive circuit small.Therearetwooperatingmodesinthecircuitinwhichitiseasytobalance the input and output powers. The principle of operationof the proposed HB-LED driver is explained and experimentalresults are presented.II. B
The basic quasi-active PFC circuit is shown in Fig. 1. It con-sists of a high frequency coupled inductor (C_Inductor), threevalley-filldiodes ( and ),two DC bulkcapacitors(and ), and a resonant capacitor . The PFC supplies a dis-continuouspowerload,suchas,abuck,abuck-boost,aforward,or a flyback converter. In the present application, a buck-con-verter controlling the current through a set of HB LEDs consti-tutes the load. The operation of the PFC circuit falls under twoworking (operating) modes: (a) direct-feed mode (occurs whenthe instantaneous input line voltage is higher than the voltage of 
0885-8993/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE
et al.
Fig. 1. Basic quasi-active PFC circuit.Fig. 2. Equivalent circuits for direct-feed mode: (a) output current increasing;(b) output current decreasing.
eachDCbulkcapacitor and )and(b)coupled-boostmode(occurs when the input voltage is lower than the voltage of eachDC bulk capacitor).
a) Direct-Feed Mode:
As the PFC
s output current ischanged from zero to a
nal (
xed) value, the input line willdirectly feed energy to the load and the resonant capacitorthrough the recti
er and the primary winding of C_inductor[Fig. 2(a)]. The load current passing through stores en-ergy which will be released to the resonant capacitor andthe capacitors and through when it goes to zero[Fig. 2(b)]. During this time, the input source charges theresonant capacitor and the two DC bulk capacitors andthrough . Because the output voltage of the bridgerecti
er is less than the sum of the voltages on capacitorsand , the charging current through will decay. It is clearthat during this mode, the capacitors and store part of the input energy and their voltages increase.
b) Coupled-Boost Mode:
Since the input AC voltage islower than the voltage on and during this mode, the reso-nant capacitor releases its stored energy resulting in a reduc-tioninitsvoltagewhentheloadcurrentischangedfromzerotoa
nal (
xed) value. When the voltage on becomes lower thanthat on and , the two capacitors will release the stored en-ergy to the load and the resonant capacitor [Fig. 3(a)]. Theenergy release corresponds to currents
owing through wind-ings and of the coupled inductor and the stored energy.The coupled inductors and also resonate with the capac-itor .As the load current goes back to zero, the coupled induc-tors and continue to resonate with , whose voltageincreases. As the voltage across re
ected to the secondaryis less the voltage across and , diodes and turn off,and the stored magnetic energy in and is transferred to. The inductor will release the stored magnetic energy tothe resonant capacitor , and . At the same time, theinput power line will also directly feed energy to the capacitors, and , as shown in Fig. 3(b). It is clear that during thismode, the capacitors and release the stored energy to theload and have their voltage decrease.As shown in Fig. 1, the re
ected load current is the currentthrough the active switch in the following DC/DC converteror discontinuous current load. The current stress on the activeswitch is decided only by the output load current and it is inde-pendent of the input PFC current. The voltage stress on the ac-tive switch is determined by the maximum input voltage of thefollowing DC/DC converter. The quasi-active PFC circuit hasautomatic voltage regulation that helps to keep the maximumDC bus voltage close to the amplitude of the input voltage forall load conditions.III. P
 A. Power Factor Correction
During the direct-feed mode, the current through is com-posedoftwopartsasshowninFig.4(a),thepulsecurrentwhichis the re
ected load current when the active switch of DC/DCconverter turns on, and Fig. 4(b), the decaying current through. The slope of the decaying current is proportional to the dif-ference between the input recti
ed AC voltage and the DC busvoltage. It is easy to see that the current through will decayslowly as the instantaneous recti
ed AC voltage approaches theDC bus voltage. It means that, as the recti
ed AC voltage getsclosetotheDCbusvoltage,theaveragecurrentthrough overone switching period will increase.The mathematical expression for the average input currentduring one switching period is given by(1)(2)where is the DC bus voltage; is the re
ected load cur-rent; and are associated with , switching frequency ,and .Fora
xedswitchingfrequency andaconstantoutput
Fig. 3. Equivalent circuits for coupled-boost mode: (a)
increasing; (b)
decreasing (higher and lower re
ected voltages).Fig. 4. Input current waveform for direct-feed mode.Fig. 5. Plot of input current versus input voltage (d-f mode)
current source , and are constants. The plot of versus is shown in Fig. 5. The input current varies lin-early with the input voltage during the direct-feed mode, whichmeans the input current follows the input voltage. During thecoupled-boost mode, the input current is the current throughwhich is decaying (Fig. 6). The average input current for aswitching period is given by(3)where is a constant associated with and switching fre-quency . The plot of versus is shown in Fig. 7.The relationship between the input current and the input voltageduring the coupled-boost mode is almost linear, which meanstheinputcurrentfollowstheinputvoltage.Consideringtheplotsshown in Figs. 5 and 7, it is seen that there is a linear relationbetween the input current and voltage that shows the inherentpower factor correction function of the circuit.
 B. Power Balance
The ratio between the time intervals for the direct feed andthe coupled-boost mode depends on the ratio between the in-stantaneous input voltage and the voltage on or . In oneAC cycle, as the voltage on and increases, the interval of 
Fig. 6. Input current waveform for coupled-boost mode.Fig. 7. Plot of input current versus input voltage (c-b mode).
the coupled-boost mode increases, which means that the inputpower decreases. As the voltage on and deceases, theinterval of coupled-boost mode decreases and the input powerincreases. Due to the automatic variation of the coupled-boostmode interval, it is easy to balance the input and output powersand make the maximum bus voltage closer to the amplitude of the input voltage for all load conditions.Suppose the output power decreases; the capacitors andwill release less energy to the load during coupled-boostmode, which means the change (decrease) in the voltage onand is less. Thus, there is a reduction in the interval of thedirect-feed mode and an increase in the interval of the coupled-boost mode. This reduces the stored energy in the two DC bulk capacitors that balances the lower energy released by the bulk capacitors to the load. In the same way, the energy balance canbe explained for the case of increasing output power.
C. Design Considerations
The quasi-active PFC circuit is a passive circuit driven bythe discontinuous current pulses of the following DC-DC con-

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