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Personal Protective Equipments

Personal Protective Equipments

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Published by Refinery Pedia
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Refinery Pedia: Oil Refinery Processes, Gas Processing, Petrochemicals, courses, articles, books, videos ,and more...
Download this book @ http://refinerypedia.blogspot.com/2012/07/personal-protective-equipment-part2.html
Contact me @ http://refinerypedia.blogspot.com/2011/08/contact-me.html
Refinery Pedia: Oil Refinery Processes, Gas Processing, Petrochemicals, courses, articles, books, videos ,and more...

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Published by: Refinery Pedia on Jul 17, 2012
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01/02/2013

 
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 3.3.7 RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (RPE)
If the use of the various control options does not provide the required control of an inhalation hazard, respirators should beconsidered. Typically respirators are used:
 
to reduce exposure until engineering controls are installed,
 
to supplement engineering controls and work practices which fail to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level,
 
during activities such as maintenance and repairs, when engineering controls areNot feasible,
 
during emergencies,
 
When measures and procedures necessary to control the exposure do not exist or are unavailable.( Figure 3
 –
1) indicates the various factors which influence the overall effectiveness or acceptability of RPE. Since respiratoryprotection depends upon the proper use of the equipment, all prospective users must be carefully trained in its use and undergoregular retraining.
 
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Page 2 of 14
Figure 3 -1
Factors which influence the overall effectiveness of RPE
 
 
Ease of FittingFacial FitTechnicalEffeciencyProtectionEffectiveness
 
OperatiionalAcceptabilityHead / FaceDimensions( Specified byrelevant standard )Seal Pressureand areaHead harness fitand effect onFaceieceEase of useRespiratoryloadCompatibilitywith other PPEMass and weightdistributionFreedom of MovementWorkThermal EffectsSpeechCommunication
Vision
 
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Page 3 of 14
3.3.7.1
 
OXYGEN DEFICIENCY
There are various definitions of the term “oxygen deficiency“.
Definitions range from below 16.0 % to below 19.5 % in air. Somestandards take into consideration altitude or oxygen partial pressure, others do not.
Always use air supplied respiratory protection when the oxygen level in the working atmosphere is below 20 %.
3.3.7.2 HEALTH ASPECTS OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
There are several physiological and psychological conditions which can interfere with respirator use: Impaired function of heart,blood vessels or lungs, thermal stress, diminished senses, skin reactions, psychological reactions including anxiety andclaustrophobia. Supervisors and instructors should be made aware of this.
3.3.7.3 AIR PURIFYING (FILTERING) RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
This type of equipment depends on the removal of the contaminant from the air prior to breathing. Both dust filters and gasabsorbers (and combinations) are available and may be connected to a variety of face-pieces. Air purifying respirators,cartridges and canisters are only effective for a finite time, the time being dependant on the usage conditions. Conditions of hightemperature and high humidity will shorten the stated service life of the cartridge or canister.Correct size selection and fitting are essential, since leakage around the face-piece can amount to 10 % of the air inhaled andmay be considerably more if the mask is poorly fitted, if the face is unshaved or if normal spectacles are worn. Air purifyingrespirators can be mouth piece and nose clip, half masks or full face-piece. They must not be worn in situations where theoxygen content of the air is less than 20%.Facial features sometimes vary significantly with nationality. It is important therefore that half masks are made available in atleast three different sizes. Because of the problems outlined above, the use of air purifying respirators should be confined toselected operations where the exposure levels have been assessed.
TYPES OF AIR PURIFYING RESPIRATOR:
1. SINGLE USE FILTERING FACE-PIECE (DISPOSABLE) ( FIGURE 3 - 2)
 A disposable respirator is usually a simple half mask (ori-nasal) respirator formed from the filter medium and designed to be usedfor a day or a task, after which it is thrown away.
HALF MASK OR FULL FACE-PIECE AIR PURIFYING ( FIGURE 3 - 2)a)
 
Gases or vapours
 A canister respirator consists of a face-piece connected to an adsorbent canister by means of a flexible tube. Thecartridge respirator has the adsorbent cartridge(s) directly attached to the face-piece. No adsorbent will remove allgaseous contaminants so the type of adsorbent must be carefully selected according to the hazard. Cartridges andcanisters should only be used for the gases or vapours listed on their label.The duration of protection provided by both the cartridge and the canister varies widely, from almost none in very highconcentrations to many hours in low concentrations of the contaminant. There is usually no positive indication of theremaining capacity nor its point of saturation. Where approximate airborne concentrations of contaminant are known, themaximum safe wearing time can usually be calculated from data given by the manufacturer/supplier. There is also alimitation on the shelf-life of an unopened cartridge or canister. Normally the shelf-life of cartridges/canisters, provided

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