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EI2008 MayerRichardsBarsade 2008 Draft Preprint

EI2008 MayerRichardsBarsade 2008 Draft Preprint

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Emotional Intelligence 1
Emerging Research in Emotional Intelligence
John D. MayerUniversity of New HampshireRichard D. RobertsCenter for New Constructs, Educational Testing ServiceSigal G. BarsadeWharton School, University of Pennsylvania
 Draft Preprint of 
Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D. & Barsade, S. G. (in press).
 Annual Review of Psychology, 59.
 Please Note
: This preprint represents a partial simulation of the appearance of thechapter; all text is subject to copyediting. A completely formatted and copy-edited electronic version of the chapter will be posted by the Annual Review sometime in 2007.
 Emotional intelligence (EI) concerns the ability to carry out accurate reasoningabout emotions, and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge toenhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, anddescribe the scope of the field today. We delineate three theoretical approaches tothe field: Specific Ability, Integrative Model, and Mixed Model approaches.Next, we review EI measures from each perspective. Measures from the SpecificAbility and Integrative Approaches appear especially promising. Pivotal in thisreview are those studies that address the relation between EI measures andmeaningful outcomes including social outcomes, performance, and psychologicaland physical wellbeing. The Discussion centers on a list of summary points andrecommended issues for future research.
 Key Words:
Psychological assessment, cognitive abilities, emotional knowledge,emotion perception, validity evidence
Emotional Intelligence 2
Emerging Research in Emotional Intelligence
 John Mayer, Richard D. Roberts, & Sigal Barsade
INTRODUCTIONTHE SCOPE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEWhat is Emotional Intelligence?Is Emotional Intelligence a Valid Concept?
The General Scope and Boundaries of Emotional IntelligenceAPPROACHES TO THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN THESCIENTIFIC LITERATURETheoretical Approaches to Emotional IntelligenceSpecific Ability Models of Emotional IntelligenceIntegrative Ability Models of Emotional IntelligenceMixed Models of Emotional IntelligenceRelating Emotional Intelligence to Other Psychological VariablesMEASURES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEAn Evaluation of Emotional Intelligence MeasuresAdequate Test DesignValidity Evidence from Factor StructureTest Relations to Key Benchmarks
[Side Bar:
Uncovering New Intelligences
Measurement Issues Regarding Mixed-Model ScalesWHAT DOES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE PREDICT (OR NOT) IN LIFEOUTCOMESSocial Relations in Childhood and AdolescenceSocial Relations in AdulthoodScholastic Outcomes from Grade School to CollegeEmotional Intelligence at WorkPsychological and Physical Well BeingOverall Trends and Intriguing FindingsDISCUSSIONThe Scope and Measure of Emotional IntelligenceOutcomes of Emotional IntelligenceConcluding Comments[Summary Points List][Further Issues List]
In Ancient Greece, the development of logical thought – syllogisms,arguments, inquiry – was the burgeoning information technology of the day. TheStoics of Ancient Greece believed that logic was superior to feelings becausepeople could agree as to rational arguments, but often disagreed as to feelings.Yet, over time, reliance on rationality to the exclusion of emotion was notaccepted by all. The sentimentalists of 18
Century Europe espoused a “follow
Emotional Intelligence 3your heart” credo, arguing that truth might be a property of one’s feelings andintuition, and that such feelings were truer than reason (Reddy 2001). Therecently introduced concept of emotional intelligence (EI) offers a new way of looking at the debate – that people reason about emotions and use emotions toassist reasoning.If emotional intelligence were to exist, some argued, it could strengthenour current understanding of both emotions and intelligence (e.g., Sternberg2001). It might enrich our sense of the functionality of human emotion and thebreadth of human intelligence. EI also directs attention to the role of emotion athome, in schools, and at the workplace and how the effects of emotion may ripplethrough groups and society (Barsade 2002, Barsade et al 2003, Ciarrochi et al2006, Elias et al 1997, Izard 2002, Matthews et al in press).In this review, we describe research on emotional intelligence covering aroughly 18-year span from 1990 to early 2007. During that time, research on thetopic expanded from a few articles and book chapters to an active research area.Over the same period, research continued in emotion, intelligence, and theirinteraction, as reflected in
 Annual Review
coverage (a partial list: Cacioppo &Gardner 1999, Eisenberg 2000, Lubinski 2000, Oatley & Jenkins 1992, Phelps2006, Rosenbaum et al 2001, Sternberg & Kaufman 1998, Voss & Wiley 1995).Emotional intelligence is related to both emotion and intelligence, but also isdistinct from them.Our aim has been to collect what, to us, represents some of the best andmost promising research in the EI field. A review of such research can helpdefine emotional intelligence, indicate its relation to other concepts, and illustrateits influence on practical outcomes. In the opening of our review, we will providea context for the present-day field, examine uses of the term emotionalintelligence, and describe the scope of research in the area. Our challenge incovering the field is considerable because the term emotional intelligence is usedin many different ways. One of our goals will be to identify the core elements of EI and its field of study.THE SCOPE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEWhat Is Emotional Intelligence?The term “emotional intelligence” has been employed on an occasionalbasis at least since the mid-20
century. Literary accounts of Jane Austin’s
Prideand Prejudice
refer to various characters possessing this quality (Van Ghent 1953,p. 106-107). Scientific references date to the 1960s. For example, a Germanpsychologist who attempted to treat the dissatisfaction of stay-at-home mothersreferred to their problem as a deficit in emotional intelligence, and treated themwith psychotherapy, along with the hallucinogen LSD (Leuner 1966). Additional,occasional, considerations of the concept appeared thereafter (Beasley May, 1987,Payne 1986).During the 1980s, psychologists expressed a renewed openness to the ideaof multiple intelligences (Gardner 1983, Sternberg 1985). Simultaneously,

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