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Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

# Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

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04/15/2013

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Chapter 12
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this chapter students should be able to dothe following:
s
Describe what is meant by the term
generaltolerancing.
s
Deﬁne the concept
geometric dimensioning andtolerancing.
s
Explain the purpose of a modiﬁer.
s
Distinguish between the concepts
maximum materialcondition (MMC)
and
regardless of feature size (RFS)
.
s
Explain the concept
least material condition (LMC)
.
s
Describe what is meant by
projected tolerance zone
.
s
Make a sketch that illustrates the concept of datums.
s
Demonstrate how to establish datums.
s
Apply feature control symbols when dimensioningob jects.
s
Explain the concept of
True position
.All around symbolAngularity Basic dimensionBetween symbolBilateral toleranceCircularity Cylindricity Datum Datum featureDatum feature simulatorDatum feature symbolDatum planeDatum reference frame Datum surface Datum target symbolFeature control symbol Flatness Free-state variationGeometric dimensioningand tolerancingGeneral tolerancingLeast materialcondition (LMC)Limit dimensioningMaximum materialcondition (MMC)Modiers Parallelism Perpendicularity Positional tolerancingProle Proﬁle of a lineProﬁle of a surface Projected tolerancezone Regardless of feature size (RFS)Rule #1Runout Size toleranceStatistical tolerancingsymbol Straightness Tangent planeTolerancing True positionUnilateral toleranceVirtual condition
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Summary of geometric dimensioning and tolerancingtermsGeometric dimensioning and tolerancingdeﬁnedModiﬁersFeature control symbol True positionCircularity (roundness)Cylindricity AngularityParallelismPerpendicularity ProﬁleRunoutConcentricitySummary Review questionsProblems
KEY TERMS
468

Geometric Dimensioning and To l e r a n c i n g

Summary of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Terms
Actual Local Size.
The value of any individual distanceat any cross section of a feature.
Actual Mating Size.
The dimensional value of theactual mating envelope.
Actual Size.
Actual measured size of a feature.
Allowance.
The diference between the larger shaft sizelimit and the smallest hole size limit.
Angularity.
Tolerancing of a feature at a speciﬁed angleother than 90 degrees from a reerenced datum.
Basic Dimension.
A theoretically “perfect” dimensionsimilar to a reerence or nominal dimension. It is used to identify the exact location, size, shape, or orientation of aeature. Associated tolerances are applied by notes, feature control frame, or other methods, excluding tolerance within title blocks.
Bilateral Tolerances.
Tolerances that are applied to anominal dimension in the positive and negative directions.
Bonus Tolerance.
The permitted allowable increase intolerance as the feature departs from the material conditionidentiﬁed within the feature control frame.
Circular Runout.
A tolerance that identiﬁes an inﬁnite number of single circular elements measured at crosssections on a feature when the feature is rotated 360degrees for each cross section.
Circularity.
A tolerance that controls the circular crosssection of round features that is independent of othereatures. The tolerance zone boundary is formed by two concentric perfect circles.
Clearance Fit.
A condition between mating parts inwhich the internal part is always smaller than the externalparts it ﬁts into.
Coaxiality.
The condition of two or more featureshaving coincident axes.
Compound Datum Features.
Two datum features usedto establish a datum or axis plane.
Concentricity.
A tolerance in which the axis of a featuremust be coaxial to a speciﬁed datum regardless of the datums and the features size. The lack of concentricity is eccentricity.
Cylindricity.
A tolerance that simultaneously controlsa surface of revolution for straightness, parallelism, andcircularity of a feature, and is independent of any other fea-tures on a part. The tolerance zone boundary is composedof two concentric perfect cylinders.
Datum.
Reerence points, lines, planes, cylinders, and axes which are assumed to be exact. They are establishedrom datum features.
Datum Axis.
The axis of a reerenced datum feature such as a hole or shaft.
Datum Feature.
A feature which is used to establisha datum.
Datum Feature of Size.
A feature that has size, such asa shaft, which is used to establish a datum.
Datum Identiﬁcation Symbol.
A special rectangular boxwhich contains the datum reerence letter and a dash on either side of the letter. It is used to identify datum features.
Datum: Feature Simulator.
A surface of adequatelyprecise form (such as a surface plate, a gage surface, or amandrel) contacting the datum feature(s) and used to establish the simulated datum(s).
Datum: Reference.
Entering a datum reerence letter in a compartment of the feature control frame followingthe tolerance value.
Datum: Reference Frame.
Three mutually perpendi-cular planes that establish a coordinate system. It is created by datum reerences in a feature control frame or by a note.
Datum: Simulated.
A point, axis, or plane established byprocessing or inspection equipment, such as the following:simulator, surface plate, a gage surface, or a mandrel.
Datum Simulation.
The use of a tool contacting adatum feature used to simulate a true geometric counter-part of the feature.
Datum Simulator.
A tool used to contact a datum feature.
Datum Target.
Speciﬁed points, lines, or areas on a eature used to establish datums.
Datum Target Area.
A speciﬁed area on a part that iscontacted to establish a datum.
Datum Target Line.
A line on a surface that is contactedto establish a datum.
Datum Target Point.
A speciﬁed point on a surface usedto establish a datum.
Datum Target Symbol.
A circle divided horizontallyinto halves containing a letter and number to identifydatum targets.
Envelope, Actual Mating.
The term is deﬁned according to the type of features as follows:(a)
For an External Feature
. A similar perfect featurecounterpart of smallest size that can be circum- scribed about the features so that it just contacts thesurface at the highest points. For example, a small-est cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes

Chapter 12
of perfect form at minimum separation that justcontact(s) the highest points of the surf ace(s). For features controlled by orientation or posi-tional tolerances, the actual mating envelope isorientated relative to the appropriate datum(s),for example, perpendicular to a primary datumplane. (b)
For an Internal Feature
. A similar perfect featurecounterpart of largest size that can be inscribed within the feature so that it just contacts the surf ace at the highest points. For example, a largest cylin-der of perfect form or two parallel planes of perf ect orm at maximum separation that just contact(s)the highest points of the surf ace(s). For features controlled by orientation or posi-tional tolerance, the actual mating envelope is ori-ented relative to the appropriate datum(s).
Feature.
A component of a part such as a hole, slot,surface, pin, tab, or boss.
Feature of Size.
One cylindrical or spherical surface, ora set of two opposed elements or opposed parallel surf aces, associated with a size dimension.
Feature, Axis of.
A straight line that coincides with theaxis of the true geometric counterpart of the speciﬁed fea-ture.
Feature, Center Plane of.
A plane that coincides withthe center plane of the true geometric counterpart of thespeciﬁed feature.
Feature, Derived Median Plane of.
An imperfect plane(abstract) that passes through the center points of all linesegments bounded by the feature. These line segments arenormal to the actual mating envelope.
Feature, Derived Median Line of.
An imperfect line(abstract) that passes through the center points of all crosssections of the feature. These cross sections are normal tothe axis of the actual mating envelope. The cross sectioncenter points are determined as per ANSI B89.3.1.
Fit.
A term used to describe the range of assembly thatresults from tolerances on two mating parts.
Flatness.
A tolerance that controls the amount of vari-ation from the perfect plane on a feature independent oany other features on the part.
Form Tolerance.
A tolerance that speciﬁes the allowablevariation of a feature from its perfect form.
Free-state Variation.
The condition of a part that permits its dimensional limits to vary after removal from manu-facturing or inspection equipment.
Least Material Condition (LMC).
A condition of aeature in which it contains the least amount of material relative to the associated tolerances. Examples are maxi-mum hole diameter and minimum shaft diameter.
Limit Dimensions.
A tolerancing method showingonly the maximum and minimum dimensions whichestablish the limits of a part size or location.
Limits.
The maximum and minimum allowable sizes of a feature.
Location Tolerance.
A tolerance which speciﬁes theallowable variation from the perfect location of a featurerelative to datums or other features.
Maximum Material Condition (MMC).
A conditionin which the feature contains the maximum amount of material relative to the associated tolerances. Examples aremaximum shaft diameter and minimum hole diameter.
Modiﬁer.
The application of MMC or LMC to alter thenormally implied interpretation of a tolerance speciﬁcation.
Parallelism.
A tolerance that controls the orientation of interdependent surfaces and axes which must be of equal distance from a datum plane or axis.
Perpendicularity.
A tolerance that controls surf aces and axes which must be at right angles with a reerenced datum.
Position Tolerance.
A tolerance that controls the posi-tion of a feature relative to the true position speciﬁed forthe features, as related to a datum or datums.
Primary Datum.
The ﬁrst datum reerence in a feature control frame. Normally is elected because it is most important to the design criteria and function of the part.
Proﬁle of a Line.
A tolerance that controls the allow-able variation of line element in only one direction on asurface along an elemental tolerance zone with regard to a basic proﬁle.
Proﬁle of a Surf ace.
A tolerance that controls theallowable variation of a surface from a basic proﬁle orconﬁguration.
Proﬁle Tolerance Zone.
A tolerance zone that can con-trol the form of an individual feature and provide for acomposite control of form, orientation, and location.
Projected Tolerance Zone.
A tolerance zone that appliesto the location of an axis beyond the surface of the featurebeing controlled.
Reerence Dimension.
A non-tolerance zone or locationdimension used for information purposes only and doesnot govern production or inspection operations.
Regardless of Feature Size (RFS).
A condition of a tol-erance in which the tolerance must be met regardless of the produced size of the feature.