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Electrical Circuits Theorems

# Electrical Circuits Theorems

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01/26/2013

Notation
Thesymbol fontis used for some notation and formulae. If the Greek symbols for
alphabeta delta
do notappear here
[
α β δ
]
the symbol font needs to be installed for correct display of notationand formulae.
EGIRP
voltage sourceconductancecurrentresistancepower [volts, V][siemens, S][amps, A][ohms,
][watts]
VX YZ
][siemens, S][ohms,
]
Ohm's Law
When an applied voltage
E
causes a current
I
to flow through an impedance
Z
, thevalue of the impedance
Z
is equal to the voltage
E
divided by the current
I
.
Impedance = Voltage / Current
Z = E / I

Similarly, when a voltage
E
is applied across an impedance
Z
, the resulting current
I
through the impedance is equal to the voltage
E
divided by the impedance
Z
.
Current = Voltage / Impedance
I = E / Z

Similarly, when a current
I
is passed through an impedance
Z
, the resulting voltage drop
V
across the impedance is equal to the current
I
multiplied by the impedance
Z
.
Voltage = Current * Impedance
V = IZ

Y
which is the reciprocal of impedance
Z
:
V = I / Y

Kirchhoff's Laws
Kirchhoff's Current Law
At any instant the sum of all the currents flowing into any circuit node is equal to thesum of all the currents flowing out of that node:
Σ
I
in
=
Σ
I
out
Similarly, at any instant the algebraic sum of all the currents at any circuit node is zero:
Σ
I = 0

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
At any instant the sum of all the voltage sources in any closed circuit is equal to the sumof all the voltage drops in that circuit:
Σ
E =
Σ
IZ
Similarly, at any instant the algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed circuit iszero:
Σ
E -
Σ
IZ = 0

Thévenin's Theorem

Any linear voltage network which may be viewed from two terminals can be replaced bya voltage-source equivalent circuit comprising a single voltage source
E
and a singleseries impedance
Z
. The voltage
E
is the open-circuit voltage between the two terminalsand the impedance
Z
is the impedance of the network viewed from the terminals with allvoltage sources replaced by their internal impedances.
Norton's Theorem
Any linear current network which may be viewed from two terminals can be replaced bya current-source equivalent circuit comprising a single current source
I
Y
. The current
I
is the short-circuit current between the two terminalsand the admittance
Y
is the admittance of the network viewed from the terminals with allcurrent sources replaced by their internal admittances.
Thévenin and Norton Equivalence
The open circuit, short circuit and load conditions of the Thévenin model are:
V
oc
= EI
sc
= E / ZV
= E - I
ZI
= E / (Z + Z
)
The open circuit, short circuit and load conditions of the Norton model are:
V
oc
= I / YI
sc
= IV
= I / (Y + Y
)I
= I - V
Y

Thévenin model from Norton model
E = I / YZ = Y
-1

Norton model from Thévenin model
Current = Voltage / ImpedanceAdmittance = 1 / Impedance
I = E / Z Y = Z
-1

When performing network reduction for a Thévenin or Norton model, note that:- nodes with zero voltage difference may be short-circuited with no effect on the networkcurrent distribution,- branches carrying zero current may be open-circuited with no effect on the networkvoltage distribution.
Superposition Theorem
In a linear network with multiple voltage sources, the current in any branch is the sum of the currents which would flow in that branch due to each voltage source acting alonewith all other voltage sources replaced by their internal impedances.

Reciprocity Theorem
If a voltage source
E
acting in one branch of a network causes a current
I
to flow inanother branch of the network, then the same voltage source
E
acting in the secondbranch would cause an identical current
I
to flow in the first branch.
Compensation Theorem
If the impedance
Z
of a branch in a network in which a current
I
flows is changed by afinite amount
δ
Z
, then the change in the currents in all other branches of the networkmay be calculated by inserting a voltage source of
-I
δ
Z
into that branch with all other voltage sources replaced by their internal impedances.
Millman's Theorem (Parallel Generator Theorem)
Y
1
,
Y
2
,
Y
3
, ... meet at a common point P, and the voltagesfrom another point N to the free ends of these admittances are
E
1
,
E
2
,
E
3
, ... then thevoltage between points P and N is:
V
PN
= (E
1
Y
1
+ E
2
Y
2
+ E
3
Y
3
+ ...) / (Y
1
+ Y
2
+ Y
3
+ ...)V
PN
=
Σ
EY /
Σ
Y
The short-circuit currents available between points P and N due to each of the voltages
E
1
,
E
2
,
E
3
, ... acting through the respective admitances
Y
1
,
Y
2
,
Y
3
, ... are
E
1
Y
1
,
E
2
Y
2
,
E
3
Y
3
, ... so the voltage between points P and N may be expressed as:
V
PN
=
Σ
I
sc
/
Σ
Y

Joule's Law
When a current
I
is passed through a resistance
R
, the resulting power
P
dissipated inthe resistance is equal to the square of the current
I
multiplied by the resistance
R
:
P = I
2
R
By substitution using Ohm's Law for the corresponding voltage drop
V (= IR)
across theresistance:
P = V
2
/ R = VI = I
2
R

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
When the impedance of a load connected to a power source is varied from open-circuitto short-circuit, the power absorbed by the load has a maximum value at a loadimpedance which is dependent on the impedance of the power source.Note that power is zero for an open-circuit (zero current) and for a short-circuit (zerovoltage).
Voltage Source
R
T
is connected to a voltage source
E
S
with series resistance
R
S
, maximum power transfer to the load occurs when
R
T
is equal to
R
S
.