CEPT sludge is readily dewatered and processed. The amount of CEPT sludgeis generally only 10 to 15% greater than that produced by the removal of suspended solids.
CEPT is an effective and appropriate first stage treatment process, it may befollowed by biological treatment if the incremental effluent improvement, the risk of toxic upsets of the biological process and increased biosolids disposal can be justified and afforded. Subsequent biological treatment plants will be smaller andmore efficient because of reduced organic load and increased solubility of theCEPT effluent.
The paper includes a frank discussion of the impediments to the adoption of innovative and appropriate wastewater treatment technologies in the developingworld.
While CEPT is already being applied in mega-cities, it is appropriate for small citiesas well. Ongoing studies are aimed at reducing the cost and increasing the efficiencyof wastewater treatment lagoons frequently used in small cities by combining CEPTand lagoon treatment technologies. CEPT tanks can be used as a pre-lagoontreatment to reduce solids and BOD loading to lagoons or coagulants can be addeddirectly at the lagoon inlet.
Recommendations for needed research are presented.
Population growth in mega-cities and other urban areas of the developing world andthe associated water-related pollution and public health problems are a muchdiscussed topic. The important issue is whether the developing world should followthe model of using the municipal wastewater treatment technology of WesternEurope and North America or whether there is an alternative "sustainablesanitation" approach?
A committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC, 1996) reported on"sustainable water and sanitation services for mega-cities in the developing world."Unfortunately, the report is long on generalities and short on specifics. The authorsindicate that "water and sanitation professionals must take a broader view of sanitation to prevent disease resulting from a wide range of activities and multipleexposure routes." On the role of treatment technology, the authors state that"technical innovation should be based on carefully considered performance criteriaappropriate to maintaining a healthy environment." The final conclusion notes that,"With appropriate treatment, reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater fornon-potable uses can become an increasingly cost-effective conservation measure."
The issue of appropriate wastewater treatment for the developing world has alsobeen featured in
Water Science and Technology
(Henze et al,1997). Half thepapers address the definition and analysis of sustainability, while the other half dealwith the technology. Most of the technology papers are concerned with non-conventional (and very expensive) collection systems designed to separate, treat and