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Child Asthma Survey

Child Asthma Survey

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Published by: xanaoneill1 on Jul 18, 2012
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NYC V
ITAL
S
IGNS
 
NYCVital Signs
 A data report from the New York City Health Department 
 July 2012Volume 11, No. 4New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Preventing and Treating Childhood Asthma in NYC
A
sthma is a serious problem for children inthe United States and New York City (NYC).In 2009, more than seven million children17 years of age and younger suffered from asthmanationwide.
1
In NYC, about 177,000 children 12 yearsof age and younger were ever diagnosed with asthma.Uncontrolled childhood asthma can result in missingschool, visits to the emergency department andhospital admissions.While it is not fully understood what causesasthma, ways to prevent and manage symptoms arewell established. They include anti-inflammatorymedication to prevent asthma episodes, such as
In 2009, 13% of New York City children 12 years of ageand younger (177,000) had ever been diagnosed withasthma, according to parent reports.
Boys were more likely to have ever been diagnosed withasthma than girls (15% vs. 11%).
One in five Hispanic children (85,000) and almost one insix black children (58,000) had ever been diagnosedwith asthma.
Children living in the poorest households were almosttwice as likely to ever be diagnosed with asthma asthose living in the wealthiest households (15% vs. 8%).
 Asthma is more common among low-income, Hispanic and black children
inhaled corticosteroids, and avoidance of environmental asthma triggers, like household pests, mold, orcigarette smoke.This report examines the prevalence andtreatment of asthma among children 12 years of ageand younger in New York City. It also highlightsracial and ethnic, income and neighborhooddisparities in asthma-related emergency room visitsand hospital admissions. Page four providesrecommendations for managing and treatingchildhood asthma.
Data presented in this report are from the 2009 New York City Child Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the New York State Statewide Planning and Research CooperativeSystem (SPARCS) 2010 (updated March 2011). The CCHS was a population-based telephone survey conducted with support from Children’s Health Fund. A parent, guardian orother knowledgeable adult (referred to as “parent,” as 92% of respondents were either the child’s mother or father) was interviewed about the health of one child in theselected household for a sample of 3,002 children. SPARCS captures data on all emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalizations in New York State, and datapresented here are limited to NYC residents. Population denominators used for rates were produced by DOHMH based on the US Census Bureau Population Estimate Program,vintage estimates for each year, and housing unit data from the NYC Dept of City Planning (DCP).
For more New York City health data and publications, visitMy Community’s Healthatwww.nyc.gov/health/mycommunityshealth.
Source: NYC Child Community Health Survey 2009.
1
Akinbami LJ, Morrman JE, Liu X, Asthma prevalence, health care use, andmortality: United States 2005-2009. National Health Statistics Reports. 2011; 32.
All Children
13177,000
Sex
 Male 15102,000Female 1175,000
Age (years)
 0-5 960,0006-12 17117,000
Race / Ethnicity
 White 520,000Black 1758,000Hispanic 1885,000Asian / Pacific Islander 812,000Other 5*2,000
Household Income (% of federal poverty level)
High poverty/poorest (<200%) 15109,000Medium poverty (200-399%) 1431,000Low poverty/wealthiest (
400%) 824,000
%#
Prevalence of ever diagnosed asthma amongNYC children 12 years and younger, 2009
*Estimate should be interpreted with caution due to small sample size.
 
024681012
2009200820072006200520042003200220012000
Low poverty/wealthiestMedium povertyHigh poverty/poorest
2
N
EW
 Y
ORK 
C
ITY
D
EPARTMENTOF
H
EALTHAND
M
ENTAL
H
 YGIENE
July 2012
In 2009, the rate of child asthma-related emergency department visitsin the poorest neighborhoods was three times the rate in the wealthiest 
In 2009, almost half (47%) of all children withasthma in NYC had an asthma episode in the pastyear, according to parent reports. Almost twothirds (61%) or 51,000 children of those withreported asthma episode visited an emergencydepartment or urgent care clinic due to asthma.
In 2009, rates of asthma-related emergencydepartment visits among all children 12 years of age and younger were highest in East Harlem (81per 1,000 children) and Central Harlem (79/1,000)in Manhattan, Highbridge-Morrisania (61/1,000)and Hunts Point-Mott Haven (68/1,000) in theBronx, and Williamsburg-Bushwick (49/1,000) inBrooklyn.
Rates of child asthma-related emergencydepartment visits were three times higher in thepoorest neighborhoods than in the wealthiest (40vs. 13 per 1,000).
Even more striking is the disparity of someadjacent neighborhoods. Children in East Harlem,for example, are almost thirteen times more likelythan children living on the Upper East Side tovisit the emergency room for asthma-relatedissues (81 per 1,000 vs. 6.4 per 1,000).
Most child asthma hospitalizations are preventablewith proper management and treatment. In 2009,there were 174,905 hospitalizations among NYCchildren 12 years of age and younger. Of those,about 5% (8,297) were asthma-related.
Between 2000 and 2009, the number of childrenhospitalized due to asthma dropped slightly in all neighborhoods, but there were still disparities. In2009, children with asthma living in poorneighborhoods were two and a half times morelikely to be hospitalized than those in wealthierneighborhoods (8/1,000 vs. 3/1,000).
Child asthma hospitalization rates in the Bronx (11per 1,000 children) were two to three times higherthan those in other boroughs
Brooklyn: 6/1,000,Manhattan: 4/1,000, Queens: 4/1,000, and StatenIsland: 2/1,000.
Asthma-related hospitalizations among children(aged 0 to 12) by NYC neighborhood, 2000–2009Asthma-related emergency department visits in NYC Year 
   R  a   t  e  o   f  c   h   i   l   d  a  s   t   h  m  a   h  o  s  p   i   t  a   l   i  z  a   t   i  o  n  s  p  e  r   1 ,   0   0   0  c   h   i   l   d  r  e  n   (   0  -   1   2  y  e  a  r  s   )
Child asthma hospitalization rates have decreased across New York City 
Source: NYSDOH SPARCS, 2009. Neighborhood (based on United Hospital Fund areas) poverty defined as proportion of residents with incomes below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level, per Census 2000.Source: NYSDOH SPARCS, 2000-2009. Neighborhood (based on United Hospital Fund areas) poverty defined as percent of residents with incomes below 200% of the FederalPoverty Level, per Census 2000.
East HarlemCentral Harlem - Morningside HeightsHigh Bridge - MorrisaniaWilliamsburg - BushwickHunts Point - Mott Haven
3.6 - 10.911 - 21.421.5 - 33.233.3 - 81.3
High Poverty Neighborhoods
Rate per 1,000 children
Upper East Side
 
NYC V
ITAL
S
IGNS
3Volume 11, No. 4
05101520253035404550Children without asthmaSecondhand smoke in homeCracks or holes in home
1911138
Children with asthma
Percent of NYC children (aged 0 to 12) living inhomes with common asthma triggers
Source: NYC Child Health Survey 2009
More than one in eight children with asthma are exposed to potentialasthma triggers in the home
   %   o   f  c   h   i   l   d  r  e  n   (  a  g  e   d   0  –   1   2   )
Pests produce allergens that trigger asthma episodesin children. Cracks, holes or moisture in the interiorwalls, ceilings or floors may predispose homes toinfestations of cockroaches, rodents or mold.
In 2009, children with asthma were more likely tohave lived in homes with cracks or holes comparedwith children without asthma (19% vs. 11%),according to parent reports.
Secondhand smoke also triggers asthma episodesamong children. Children with asthma were morelikely to have lived in homes where someone smokedat least occasionally compared with children withoutasthma (13% vs. 8%) according to parent reports.
Asthma and the environment.
The causes of asthma are unknown. Researchers have found that a combination of family history andexposures to a host of environmental agents can play a role in the development of asthma. Environmental causes of asthma exacerbationare better understood. Secondhand smoke is an important environmental trigger of asthma episodes, other respiratory illness, and earinfections. In addition, the presence of cockroaches and mice, both known to exacerbate asthma, are far more common in high-povertyneighborhoods, which are also most affected by asthma. Common outdoor triggers include exposure to pollen and pollution from fuel combustion (such as ozone and particulates). For more information, search
Environmental Public Health and Sustainability TrackingPortal
at
nyc.gov
.An
asthma action plan
(AAP) is a set of written instructions created by health care providers in partnership with parents/caregiversto help children and families remember the asthma treatment plan. A
medical administration form
(MAF) allows a student withasthma to have access to asthma medications in school.
0102030405060708090100
Medicaladministration formAsthma actionplan
6560
Percent of asthma action plans and medicationadministration forms among children(aged six to 12) taking asthma medication and whohad an asthma episode in past 12 months, 2009
Source: NYC Child Community Health Survey 2009
One in three children taking prescribed asthma medications does not have anasthma action plan or a medical administration form
   %   o   f  c   h   i   l   d  r  e  n   (  a  g  e   d   6  –   1   2   )
Every child with asthma should have an asthmaaction plan (AAP) and all school children withasthma should have both an AAP and a medical administration form (MAF).
In 2009, only 65% and 60% of children withasthma aged six to 12 who had an asthma episodein the past year and who take asthma medicationhad an AAP and MAF, respectively, according toparent reports.

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