Anand Pratap Singh et al.,
ISSN 2231 - 2250
Stem cells are unspecialized cells. Self-renewal and differentiation potential are twodefining properties of stem cells.
Self-regeneration is the ability of stem cells todivide and produce more stem cells.
During early development, the cell division issymmetrical and daughter cells have thesame potential. Later in development, thecell divides asymmetrically and gives rise toone daughter stem cell and one progenitor cell.
The progenitor cell (derived from germlayer stem cells) is responsible to producespecialized cell with special function bydifferentiation
and is also called as Transit-amplifying cells, Precursor cells, Lineagestem cells, and Tissue-determined stemcells. Progenitor cell undergoesasymmetrical, while a stem cell undergoessymmetrical cell division.
After the differentiation, most of theembryonic stem cells lose their ability todifferentiate further and act as morespecialized cells (process calleddetermination). Only a small number of cellsretain some ability to differentiate and calledas the adult stem cells.
Thesemultipotent cells replenish and repair manycells of the body.
Hierarchy sequence of stem cells during differentiation occurs as:zygote (totipotent), embryonal stem cells(pleuripotent), germ layer stem cell(multipotent), lineage stem cell or transit-amplifying cells (oligopotent), tissue-determined stem cell (tri or bi-potent) andterminal cell (nullipotent).
Classification and Sources
Stem Cells can be classified according totheir origin, potential for differentiation(characteristics), different models of cellular differentiation and capacity for tissue re-population
in short, medium or longtime regeneration.I.
Based on Origin,
can be classifiedinto four broad types:
a) Stem Cells From Embryo
Blastocyst (5 - 7 days) embryonicstem cells.
Gonadal ridge (6 week) embryonicgerm cells.
b) Stem Cells From Fetus
Abortus (Fetal tissues) fetal stemcells.
c) Stem Cells From Infant
Umbilical cord blood stem cells.
Jelly Umbilical cordmatrix stem cells.d)
Stem Cells From the Adult
Germline Spermatogonia andOogonia.
Somatic Hemopoietic (Bone marrowand Peripheral Blood),Mesenchymal (Bone marrowStroma), Liver, Epidermal (skin,hair), Neuronal, Eye, Gut, Pancreas.II.
Based on Differentiation Potential
which ranges from totipotent tonullipotent cells:a)
: Generate all types of cellsincluding germ cells.b)
: Generate all types of cellsexcept cells of the embryonicmembrane.c)
: Differentiate into five typesof blood cells (monocytes,macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophilsand erythrocytes).d)
: Differentiate into more thanone mature cell (skeletal muscle, cardiacmuscle, liver cells, all blood cells).e)
: Differentiate into four types of cells (cartilage cells, fat cells,stromal cells and bone-forming cells).f)
: Differentiate into three typesof cells (2 types of astrocytes andoligodendrocytes).g)
: Differentiate into two types of cells (b cells and macrophages).h)
: Differentiate into single typeof cell (mast cells).i)
: No cell division and areterminally differentiated like red bloodcells. j)
: Divide withoutdifferentiation and create everlastingsupply.k)
: Mature cells have plasticityand can undergo differentiation. Thetrigger for plasticity is stress or tissueinjury which up regulates the stem cellsand releases chemo-attractants andgrowth factors.
III. Based on Different Models of CellularDifferentiation
: A specific type of cell developed in a multistepunidirectional pathway.b.
: Directconversion of one cell type to another different cell type.c.
: A unipotent stemcell becoming a multipotent.d.
: A stem cell fusing with asomatic cell resulting in another lineage.