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Restorers and maintainers of WA cytoplasmic male sterile lines in rice

Restorers and maintainers of WA cytoplasmic male sterile lines in rice

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Published by Grace Cañas
IRRN 2012-001_GenRes IRRN Vol. 37 (2012)
IRRN 2012-001_GenRes IRRN Vol. 37 (2012)

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Grace Cañas on Jul 19, 2012
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05/13/2014

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Genetic resources
2012
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
1
Restorers and maintainers of WA cytoplasmicmale sterile lines in rice
 
M.N. Upadhyay and H.K. Jaiswal, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Instituteof Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi 221005, India
 
E-mail: manindra_upadhyay@rediffmail.com
Rice (
Oryza sativa
L.) is the staple food of almost half of the world’s population.Hybrid rice has proved to be the most viable option to increase rice production.The use of wild abortive (WA)-type cytoplasm to develop hybrid rice is now asuccess story. The first commercial usable CMS line was developed in China in1973; it came from a spontaneous male sterile plant isolated from a population ofwild rice
O. sativa
f.
spontanea
in Hainan Island. The identification of maintainersand restorers is a basic requirement for better hybrid seed production.Four CMS lines and 22 nonaromatic rice genotypes were planted in acrossing block in the 2008 wet season at the Agriculture Research Farm at BHU.In the following wet season, the 88 F
1
s were planted in a randomized blockdesign to determine which were restorers, partial restorers, partial maintainers,and maintainers. Twenty-five-day-old seedlings were transplanted (one seedlinghill
-1
) at a spacing of 20 cm × 15 cm (row to row and plant to plant). Theexperiment was repeated in the 2010 wet season to confirm the previous year’sresults. Pollen fertility and spikelet fertility were observed to identify themaintainers and the restorers, following the classification of Govindraj andVirmani (1988).In our study, 88 crosses were made using four CMS lines—IR79156A,IR68897A, IR80555A, and IR67684A. All four CMS lines were found to be stable.A pollen parent is classified as a restorer if its hybrid records >60% pollenfertility and >80% spikelet fertility. The genotypes BPT 5204, Swetha, Jaya, HUR5-2, and Sasyasree were classified as stable restorers as they recorded more than60% pollen fertility in both years (see table). These genotypes will be useful indeveloping hybrids as they possess different traits of interest. Tomar andVirmani (1990), Rosamma and Vijayakumar (2005), and Kumar et al (2010)similar results reported in their studies using different elite lines.Early Shamba, Salivahana, Sarjoo-52, and Swarna were restorers forIR80555A and IR67684A. Of these, Early Shamba and Salivahana additionally
 
 
Genetic resources
2012
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
2restored the fertility of IR68897A and Sarjoo-52 and Swarna restored the fertilityof IR79156A. The findings suggest that these four genotypes have a commongenetic background with respect to restoring the fertility of lines IR80555A andIR67684A. However, they differed in the restoration of IR79156A and IR68897A,and this may imply that Early Shamba and Salivahana have different specificnuclear genes for the restoration of IR68897A. The same may be true for thegenes in Sarjoo-52 and Swarna to restore IR79156A fertility.Ajay restored the fertility of IR79156A, IR68897A, and IR80555A.Phalguna, Swarna Dhan, Pant-4, and Nidhi restored two of the four CMS linesused, whereas Triguna, HUR-3022, HUR-36, NDR-359, and Nagarjuna proved tobe poor restorers and could restore only one of the four CMS lines. This suggeststhat these restorers have variable restoring ability because of differentialinteractions of nuclear genes with the CMS factor.In the case of an F
1
testcross showing <1% pollen fertility and <1% spikeletfertility, the pollen parent can be considered as an effective maintainer. Theeffective maintainers can be further backcrossed with their respective F
1
s to selectcompletely sterile backcross progenies so that these can be developed as newCMS lines. Shanthi was an effective maintainer for two CMS lines. It is 85 cm talland is similar to the CMS lines used; it is thus most appropriate for conversion.In a majority of the cases, the genotypes behaved as a restorer for oneCMS line and as a maintainer, partial restorer, or partial maintainer for the otherCMS lines (Bisen and Motiramani 2005). Gautam and Singh (2004) suggested thatpartial restorers or maintainers have no utility in hybrid rice breeding. Thevariation in fertility restoration behavior indicates that either the fertility-restoring genes are different or that their penetrance and expressivity varied withthe genotype of the parents or the presence of modifier genes in the femalebackground. Hemareddy et al (2000) reported similar results.
 
References
 
Bisen R, Motiramani NK. 2005. Identifying maintainers and restorers using WA sourcecytoplasmic male sterile lines in rice. Int. Rice Res. Notes 30(1):14-15.Gautam RK, Singh RK. 2004. Identification of salt-tolerant varieties as restorers and maintainersfor cytoplasmic genic male sterility for developing salt-tolerant rice hybrids. In:Proceedings of the International Symposium on Rice: From Green Revolution to GeneRevolution. India: Directorate of Rice Research. p 109-110.Govindraj K, Virmani SS. 1988. Genetics of fertility restoration of ‘WA’ type cytoplasmic malesterility in rice. Crop Sci. 28:787-792.Hemareddy HB, Lohithaswa HC, Patil RS, Manjunath A, Mahadevappa M, Kulkarni RS. 2000.Differential fertility restoration behaviour of genotypes of WA, Oryza perennis andMS577A cyto-sterile system of rice. Oryza 37(1):26-28.
 
 
Genetic resources
2012
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
3
Kumar M, Verma OP, Kumar K, Verma GP. 2010. Fertility restoration behaviour of ricegenotypes for CMS lines under saline-alkali situation. Oryza 47(4):265-268.Rosamma LA, Vijayakumar NK. 2005. Maintainers and restorers for CMS lines in rice. J. Trop.Agric. 43(1-2):75-77.Tomar JB, Virmani SS. 1990. Identifying maintainers and restorers of CMS lines for hybrid ricebreeding. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 15(6):5-6.
 

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