3.1 Random Waypoint Model (RWP)
RWP is described by Johnson and Maltz . It is mostfrequently used mobility model. Here all the nodes arespread around the simulation area. Each node picks arandom destination and travels towards it with a velocityuniformly distributed over [0,
max]. At the destination,each node waits for a precise pause time before selectinga new random direction. RWP is differentiated by suddenstopping and sudden mobility. Until the simulation is onthis process is performed again and again.
3.2 Modified Random Direction Mobility Model(MRD)
Advancement in Random Direction Model  is Modi-fied Random Direction Model . In this model, nodeschoose a direction degree like before, but they may picktheir destination anywhere along that direction of travel.They are not required to go all the way to the boundary. In this improved version, mobile nodes continue toselect random directions but they are no longer obligatoryto travel to the simulation boundary before discontinuingchanging direction. In its place, a mobile node chooses arandom direction and selects a destination anywhere
along that direction of travel . This modiﬁcation yields
movement patterns that could be simulated by the Ran-dom Walk Mobility Model with pause times.
The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)  al-gorithm enables dynamic, self-starting, multi-hop routingbetween partaking mobile nodes desiring to create anduphold an ad hoc network. Bellman-Ford Algorithm isused in AODV for resolving the issue of count-to-infinity.Every single node keeps a destination sequence numberfor every route entry. Each node updates its availabilityby sending the Hello packets to its neighboring nodes atpredefined time interval. Every time, a node wants todiscover a route to the destination, expired route or bro-ken link, Route discovery process is executed. RREQ mes-sages are broadcast while the Route Discovery Process isheld; these messages are forwarded node to node up tothe destination. When the proposed destination receivesthe RREQ message, it replies with RREP message. RREPmessages follow a reverse path than RREQ messages. Allnodes within AODV network maintain a Routing Tableand also deal with Route Table Management.
Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) is a Geo-graphical Assisted Routing Protocol, in which each noderecognizes the geographical location of other nodes withthe help of Global Positioning System (GPS). Every nodebroadcasts beacon frames, which delivers all nodes with
their neighbor’s situations.
All nodes preserve a tablecalled neighbor table, which stocks the locations or ad-dresses of their single-hop radio neighbors. This table
offers all states vital for GPSR’s forwarding decisions,
beyond the state in the packets themselves . Here, twoprocedures are used for Greedy forwarding and Perime-ter mode. The packets are to be forwarded to the nodesthat are geographically the nearest nodes using greedyforwarding method. In perimeter mode, Right hand rulesolves the problem of packet forwarding greedy forward-ing. But Right hand rule does not remove crossed linksand works with crossed edges.
Fisheye State Routing (FSR) is a table-driven or proactiverouting protocol .
It uses the “fisheye” technique pr
o-posed by Kleinrock and Stevens , The techniquereduces the size of information required to representgraphical data. The fisheye scope is described as the set ofnodes that can be reached within a given number of hops. FSR is comparable to Link State Routing Protocol, buta difference is that, link state messages are not floodedbut dispersed and received by local neighbors only, everytime a node detects change in topology .
5.1 Simulation Environment
NS-2  is used for simulating GPSR , FSR  andAODV . Research simulations and scenarios are pro-duced using Scenario Generation tool and NS-2 Simula-tor. In this simulation, the used simulation parameters aresimilar to those used by S Gowrishankar . These re-search simulations are for networks of 5, 10, and 20 nodeswith 802.11 WaveLAN radios. Radio propagation rangefor each node is 250 meters. The nodes are firstly engageduniformly at random in a rectangular area. All nodesmove according to the Random Waypoint Model MobilityModel  and Modified Random Direction MobilityModel , with a maximum velocity ranges between 10and 20 m/s. Pause times of 0, 2, 5, and 10 seconds and atCBR source flows of 5, 10 and 20 with varying mobilitypatterns are used. Each CBR flow sends 64-byte packets ata rate of 4 and 10 packets/second. The simulation area is500 x 500 meter square. S. Gowrishankar used the pausetime of 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 seconds and the 800 x500 meter area and simulation time of 900 seconds. Eachsimulation executed for 300 seconds.
5.2 Performance Metrics
The following metrics are used to compare the differ-ent routing protocols
(i) Packet Delivery Fraction
It is de-
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG39