CORE TYPE TRANSFORMERS VS SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMERS
In the core-type, the windings surround a considerable part of the steel core. In the shell-type, the steel core surrounds a major part of the windings.ii.
For single-phase transformers, core-type has two legged core while shell-type has threelegged core.iii.
Both the high voltage winding and the low voltage winding are divided on both the limbs.When half of winding is placed on either limb, the leakage flux would correspond to onlyhalf magnetic vector.
Thus, the windings are divided to reduce leakage flux
(flux thatlinks one winding and not the other)
The low voltage (L.V.) winding is placed near tothe steel core in order to minimize the amount of insulation required.iv.
In the shell type transformer, the L.V. and H.V. windings are wound over the central limband are interleaved or sandwiched. The bottom and top L.V. coils are of half the size of other L.V. coil.v.
transformers are preferred for
low-voltage low-power levels
construction is used for
high-voltage, high-power transformers
(becauseinsulation requirement is less for core type at high voltage).vi.
In core-type transformer, the flux has a single path around the legs or yokes. In the shell-type transformer, the flux in the central limb divides equally and returns through the outertwo legs (as shown in fig. (a) & (b)).vii.
There are two types of windings employed for transformers.
The concentric coils are used for core-type transformers
Interleaved (or sandwiched) coils for shell-type transformersviii.
During the assembly of the steel core, the butt joints are
to reduce thereluctance and it provides mechanical strength to the core.ix.
Low power transformers are air-cooled whereas large power- transformers are immersedin oil for better cooling. In oil-cooled transformers, oil acts as coolant and as insulatingmedium.x.
Pulse transformers have cores made of
. In communication circuits (highfrequency circuits), cores are made of powdered
. Air core (core of nonmagnetic materials) transformers are used in radio devicesxi.
The cores are
in transformers to obtain optimum use of the copper material usedfor winding and ferroelectric material for core.
Principle of Transformer Action
A transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction according to which emf isinduced in a coil if it links a changing flux. When the primary winding is supplied with an acsource, an
alternating mutual flux
linking both the windings is set up, which induces voltage inthe primary and secondary windings. Thus the transformer action requires the existence of alternating mutual flux linking the various windings on a common magnetic core.