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Alternative Names

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Published by: eileen grace deloviar on Jan 11, 2009
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11/10/2012

 
Alternative Names
 
 
Premature separation of placenta; Ablatio placentae; Abruptio placentae; Placental abruption
 
Definition
 
 
Placenta abruptio is separation of the placenta (the organ that nourishes the fetus) from the siteof uterine implantation before delivery of the fetus.
Causes
 
The exact cause of a placetal abruption may be difficult to determine.Direct causes are rare, but include:
Abnormally short umbilical cord
Injury to the belly area (abdomen) from a fall or automobile accident
Sudden loss in uterine volume (can occur with rapid loss of amniotic fluid or the deliveryof a first twin)Risk factors include:
Advanced maternal age
Cigarette smoking
Cocaine use
Drinking more than 14 alcoholic drinks per week during pregnancy
High blood pressureduring pregnancy -- About half of placental abruptions that lead tothe baby's death are linked to high blood pressure
History of placenta abruptio
Increased uterine distention (as may occur with multiple pregnancies or abnormally largevolume of amniotic fluid)
Large number of prior deliveriesPlacenta abruptio, including any amount of placental separation prior to delivery, occurs in about1 out of 150 deliveries. The severe form, which results in fetal death, occurs only in about 1 out of 500 to 750 deliveries.
Symptoms
 
 
Exams and Tests
 
 
Tests may include:
 
Pelvic exam
Treatment
 
 
Treatment may fluids through a vein (IV) and blood transfusions. The mother will be carefullymonitored for symptoms of shock and the unborn baby will be watched for signs of distress, which includes an abnormal heart rate.An emergency cesarean section may be necessary. If the fetus is very immature and there is onlya small placenta rupture, the mother may be kept in the hospital for close observation andreleased after several days if the condition does not get worseIf the fetus is developed (matured) enough, vaginal delivery may be chosen if there is minimaldistress to the mother and child. Otherwise, a cesarean sectionmay be the preferred choice.
Outlook (Prognosis)
 
 
The mother does not usually die from this condition. However, the following increase the risk for death in both the mother and baby:
Absence of labor 
Closed cervix
Delayed diagnosis and treatment of placenta abruption
Excessive blood loss resulting in shock
Hidden (concealed) vaginal bleeding in pregnancyFetal distress appears early in the condition in about half of all cases. The infants who live have a40-50% chance of complications, which range from mild to severe.
Possible Complications
 
 
Excessive loss of blood may lead to shock and possible death in the mother or baby. If bleedingoccurs after the delivery and blood loss cannot be controlled by other means, ahysterectomy(removal of the uterus) may become necessary.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
 
 
Call your health care provider if you are in an auto accident, even if the accident is relativelyminor.See your health care provider immediately, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or go to the emergency room if you are pregnant and have symptoms of this condition. Placentaabruptio can rapidly become an emergency condition that threatens the life of both the mother and baby.
Prevention
 
 
 
Avoid drinking, smoking, or using recreational drugs during pregnancy. Get early and continuousprenatal care.Early recognition and proper management of conditions in the mother such as diabetes and highblood pressure also decrease the risk of placenta abruptio.
References
 
 
Francois KE, Foley MR. Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR,Simpson JL, eds.
Obstetrics - Normal and Problem Pregnancies
. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa:Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2007:chap 18.Houry DE, Abbott JT. Acute complications of pregnancy. In: Marx J, ed.
Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice
. 6th ed. St Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2006:chap177.
., Inc.
Placental abruption
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected fromAbruptio placentae)Jump to:navigation, search
 
Placental abruption
Classification and external resources
Placental abruption
(Also known as
abruptio placentae
) is acomplication of pregnancy, wherein theplacentallining has separated from theuterusof the mother . It is the most common cause of late pregnancy bleeding. In humans, itrefers to the abnormal separation after 20 weeks of gestation and prior to birth. Itoccurs in 1% of pregnanciesworld wide with a fetal mortality rate of 20-40%

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