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Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Theory of Multiple Intelligences



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Published by: anwarmuhaimin on Jan 11, 2009
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Theory of multiple intelligences
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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theory of multiple intelligences
was proposed byHoward Gardner to more accuratelydefine the concept of intelligence and address whether methods which claim to measureintelligence (or aspects thereof) are trulyscientific.Gardner's theory argues that intelligence, as it is traditionally defined, does not adequatelyencompass the wide variety of abilities humans display. In his conception, a child whomasters multiplication easily is not necessarily more intelligent
than a child whostruggles to do so. The second child may be stronger in another 
of intelligence, andtherefore may best learn the given material through a different approach, may excel in a fieldoutside of mathematics, or may even be looking through the multiplication learning processat a fundamentally deeper level that hides a potentially higher mathematical intelligence thanin the one who memorizes the concept easily. "The theory suggests that, rather than relyingon a uniformcurriculum, schools should offer "individual-centered education", withcurriculum tailored to the needs of each child."
"(This includes working to help studentsdevelop the intelligences in which they are weaker.)" Gardner identifies kinds of intelligences based upon eight criteria. His eight criteria for describing something as an independent kindof intelligence (rather than merely one of the skills or abilities included in a kind of intelligence, or a synonym for, or combination of other kinds of intelligence) include:
case studies of individuals exhibiting unusual talents in a given field (child prodigies,autistic savants);
neurologicalevidence for areas of the brain that are specialized for particular capacities (often including studies of people who have suffered brain damage affecting a specific capacity);
theevolutionary relevance of the various capacities;
 psychometricstudies; and
the existence of a symbolicnotation (e.g. written language, musical notation, choreography).Gardner originally identified seven core intelligences:linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial,  bodily-kinesthetic,musical, interpersonalandintrapersonal. In 1997 at the symposium "MIND 97" (Multiple Intelligences New Directions) he added an eighth, the"Naturalist" Intelligence, indicating that investigation continues on whether there areExistentialist (existential) and Spiritualist (spiritual) Intelligences.The theory has been widely criticized in the psychology and educational theory communities.The most common criticisms argue that Gardner's theory is based on his ownintuitionrather thanempiricaldata and that the intelligences are just other names for talents or  personality  types. Despite these criticisms, the theory has enjoyed a great deal of popularity amongsteducators over the past twenty years. There are several schools which espouse MI as a pedagogy, and many individual teachers who incorporate some or all of the theory into their 
methodology. Many books and educational materials exist which explain the theory and howit may be applied to the classroom.
[edit] Gardner's Categories of Intelligence
[edit] Bodily-Kinesthetic
This area has to do with movement and doing. People are generally good at physical activitiessuch as sports or dance. People who have this intelligence usually learn better by getting upand moving around. They may enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. They often learn best by physically doing something, rather thanreading or hearing about it. Those with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to usewhat might be termed muscle memory. They remember things through their body such asverbal memory or images. They require fine motor skills that require dancing, athletics,surgery, craft and other movement functions. In artificial Intelligences programs are beingdeveloped to mimic the movement of athletics through games and other computer relateditems but they will not take the place of the actual movement of this intelligence physically.Careers which suit those with this intelligence include athletes, dancers, actors, surgeons, builders, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulationthey will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence.
[edit] Interpersonal
This area has to do with interaction with others. People in this category are usually extrovertsand are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments andmotivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. Theycommunicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion anddebate. The artificial intelligences for this intelligence can be excellent. Although this is afeeling and emotional intelligences, with today's computer and online material people canlearn, relate, with each other. Web cam and other technical material has allowed people tofunction in this intelligence. The personal touch has to still be there to implement thesefunctions. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include politicians, managers,teachers, and social workers.
[edit] Verbal-linguistic
This area has to do with words, spoken or written. People with verbal-linguistic intelligencedisplay a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing,telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. They tend to learn best by reading,taking notes, listening to lectures, and via discussion and debate. They are also frequentlyskilled at explaining, teaching and oration or persuasive speaking. Those with verbal-linguistic intelligence learn foreign languages very easily as they have high verbal memoryand recall, and an ability to understand and manipulate syntax and structure. This intelligenceis high in writers, lawyers, philosophers, journalists, politicians and teachers. ArtificialIntelligences can be used in this function with written literature from the intelligences, alsothrough computers and other audio media to enhance the intelligence.
[edit] Logical-Mathematical
This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning, and numbers. While it is oftenassumed that those with this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics, chess, computer  programming and other logical or numerical activities, a more accurate definition placesemphasis on traditional mathematical ability and more reasoning capabilities, abstract patterns of recognition, scientific thinking and investigation, and the ability to performcomplex calculations. Many scientists, mathematicians, engineers, doctors and economistsfunction in this level of intelligences. This probably is the most useable intelligence that cancompare with the artificial intelligences. The military has used this intelligence in war, withthe aim of finding enemy targets with mathematical calculations. Engineers have usedcomputer programs and robots to build and construct projects. Doctors have used robots tooperate on patients. Economists have used computers to forecast the economy in the future.
[edit] Naturalistic
This area has to do with nature, nurturing and relating information to one's naturalsurroundings. This is the eighth and newest of the intelligences, added to the theory in 1997.This type of intelligence was not part of Gardner's original theory of Multiple Intelligences.Those with it are said to have greater sensitivity to nature and their place within it, the abilityto nurture and grow things, and greater ease in caring for, taming and interacting withanimals. They may also be able to discern changes inweather or similar fluctuations in their natural surroundings. They are also good at recognizing and classifying different species."Naturalists" learn best when the subject involves collecting and analyzing, or is closelyrelated to something prominent in nature; they also don't enjoy learning unfamiliar or 

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