Certainly red to yellow soils, because of their high concentration of iron oxides, suggest awarm, humid, oxidizing climate, and light gray to white, calcified soils indicate a warm,dry climate.Red soils have been extensively developed in Singhbhum, Ranchi, Hazaribag, and SanthalParaganas districts in Jharkhand State of India. The pH of the soils vary from 5 to 6.8. Theyare acidic in nature. The Jharkhand plateau consists of gneisses and schists. Many of thesegneisses and schists contain a large proportion of biotite and hornblende and as they arehighly ferruginous, the soils derived from them are deep red. The red soils usually drainoff quickly and can hardly retain moisture for any length of time.Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive andlong-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) isa prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in thethickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of theland areas with laterites was or is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.Laterites are formed from the leaching of parent sedimentary rocks (sandstones, clays,limestones); metamorphic rocks (schists, gneisses, migmatites); igneous rocks (granites, basalts, gabbros, peridotites); and mineralized proto-ores; which leaves the moreinsoluble ions, predominantly iron and aluminium. The mechanism of leaching involvesacid dissolving the host mineral lattice, followed by hydrolysis and precipitation of insoluble oxides and sulfates of iron, aluminium and silica under the high temperatureconditions of a humid sub-tropical monsoon climate. An essential feature for the formationof laterite is the repetition of wet and dry seasons. Rocks are leached by percolating rainwater during the wet season; the resulting solution containing the leached ions is brought tothe surface by capillary action during the dry season.Laterite soils are found in the ‘Pat’ region of west Ranchi and south Palamau in JharkhandState of India. The typical red colour is due to a high percentage of iron oxides. The soilsare generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and organic matter, the pH ranging between 4.5 to 6.0.The location of the Jharkhand state is just near the Tropic of Cancer which has imparted toit a typical tropical climate. The average temperature is 22 degree C. As the area is situatedin a zone of transition between Arabian Sea branches and Bay of Bengal branches of south-west monsoon a moderate rainfall of 1200 to 1400 mm. is experienced.However, caution must be exercised when using soils for the deduction of past climateevents because development results from the intricate variability of innumerable factorssuch as topography, groundwater, time, rainfall, and temperature to mention only a few.Soil colour has been inferred by many investigators (Simonson, 1954; Carter, 1956) as anindicator of either past climate or soil age, the reds and yellows indicating a warm, dryclimate with the soil becoming redder with age. Such generalizations may be adequate for local areas and restricted use, but are obviously dangerous for proper scientific evaluation.