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Table Of Contents

1.1 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT METHODS
1.3 ASSUMED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT
3.1 A HISTORIC PARALLEL
3.2 DEVELOPMENT PHASES
3.3 SEQUENCE OF PHASES
3.4 FORMAL DOCUMENTATION
3.5 FUNCTIONAL CHANGES
3.6 FORMAL METHODS ARE COUNTERINTUITIVE
3.7 BOWER’S INEQUALITY
3.8 BOWER’S EQUATION
4.1 STORAGE OF PRODUCT FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION
4.2 ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION
4.3 INFORMATION ACCESS PROBLEMS
4.6.2 Roles of other groups
4.6.3 Sources of functional information
4.6.4 FS authors
4.6.5 FS reviewers
4.7 APPROVAL OF THE FS
4.8 CHANGES TO THE FS
4.8.1 Why are changes bad?
4.8.2 Why are changes necessary?
4.8.3 Change control
4.8.4 The Modification Request (MR)
4.8.5 Review of MRs
4.8.7 Re-approval of the modified FS
4.9 VIOLATIONS OF THE FUNDAMENTAL RULE
4.9.1 Sneak paths
4.9.2 Managerial functional decisions
4.9.3 Parallel FS and Wish List
4.9.4 Collected FS changes
4.9.5 Evolutionary development
4.9.6 Inter-departmental leaks
4.10 OTHER PROBLEM AREAS
4.10.1 Winning employee cooperation
4.10.2 Continual refinements
4.10.3 If agreement can’t be reached
4.10.4 The role of prototyping
4.11 OTHER BUSINESS MODELS
5.1 BOUNDARY DEFINITION
5.2 COMPLETE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
5.4 REFERENCE TO AVAILABLE STANDARDS
5.5 CONSISTENT TERMINOLOGY
5.6 LOGICAL ORGANIZATION
5.7 NUMBERED SECTIONS
5.8 THE PRODUCT’S NAME
6.1.1 HOW the product works
6.1.2 Wishes
6.1.3 Extraneous topics
6.1.4 Specification of the design process
6.4 SELECTIVE EMPHASIS
6.5 UNTESTABLE REQUIREMENTS
6.7 IMPOSSIBLE PRECISION
6.8 UNNECESSARY REQUIREMENTS
6.9 OVER-SPECIFICATION
6.10 PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
7.1 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURE
7.1.2 Define a formal method
7.1.3 Definition of phases
7.1.4 Definition of documents
7.1.5 Description of reviews
7.1.6 The Document Control System
7.1.7 The Engineering Process Group
7.3 ARCHITECTURE SPECIFICATION
7.4 HIGH-LEVEL DESIGN SPECIFICATION
7.5 DETAILED DESIGN SPECIFICATION
7.7 ACCEPTANCE TEST PROCEDURE AND TEST REPORT
7.8 MODIFICATION REQUEST
8.1 PREPARATION FOR A REVIEW
8.2 THE PURPOSE OF A REVIEW
8.3 CONDUCTING A REVIEW MEETING
8.5 SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES TO REVIEW AN FS
8.5.1 Reviewer as User of the product
8.5.2 Reviewer as Customer for the product
8.5.3 Reviewer as Buyer of the product
8.5.4 Reviewer as Seller of the product
8.5.5 Reviewer as Buyer of contracted development
8.5.6 Reviewer as Development Contractor
8.5.7 Reviewer as Middleman
8.6 SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES TO REVIEW DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
9.2 ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING PHASE
9.3 HIGH-LEVEL DESIGN PHASE
9.5 IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
9.6 ACCEPTANCE TEST PHASE
10.1 BASIC QUALITY PRINCIPLE
10.2 VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION
10.3 REASONS FOR CERTIFICATION
11.2 CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL
11.2.1 Level 1 — Initial
11.2.2 Level 2 — Repeatable
11.2.3 Level 3 — Defined
11.6.5 Definition of a formal method
12.1 COMPANY-WIDE BENEFITS
12.1.1 The FS communicates a uniform definition to all areas
12.1.2 Documents store knowledge over time
12.1.3 Documents are easily transported
12.1.6 The FS minimizes changes during design
12.1.7 Formal methods contribute to higher product quality
12.2 HUMAN RESOURCES-RELATED BENEFITS
12.2.1 The FS as a training textbook
12.2.2 Rapid learning by new or transferred employees
12.2.3 The FS as a recruiting tool
12.2.4 The FS helps retain employees
12.3 MANAGEMENT AND FINANCE-RELATED BENEFITS
12.3.2 Communication to potential investors
12.3.3 Value to potential investors
12.3.4 Sale or transfer of a product being developed
12.3.5 High return on investment
12.4 MANUFACTURING BENEFITS
12.4.1 The FS enables a quality program
12.4.2 The formal documents provide feature traceability
12.4.3 Potential for quality certification
12.4.4 The FS enables a robust, predictable Acceptance Test Plan
12.4.5 Other Manufacturing benefits
12.5 MARKETING AND SALES-RELATED BENEFITS
12.5.1 Formal methods can reduce Time To Market
12.5.2 The FS separates WHAT from HOW
12.5.3 The FS is a reference for salespersons
12.5.4 The FS allows specific change proposals
12.5.5 The FS can be shown to selected customers
12.5.6 The FS can be submitted with a bid
12.5.8 The FS can be shown to distributors or sales representatives
12.5.9 The FS is the basis of the User’s Manual
12.5.11 The FS is the basis of advertising copy
12.6 CUSTOMER SERVICE-RELATED BENEFITS
12.7 ENGINEERING-RELATED BENEFITS
12.7.1 Designers know what to design
12.7.2 Designers know when to stop
12.7.3 The FS is the basis for design documents
12.7.4 The formal documents are the references for design reviews
12.7.5 Formal methods produce productivity gains
12.7.6 Formal methods increase early defect detection
12.7.7 The Development Plan is the basis for management tracking
12.7.8 Formal methods reduce schedule overruns
12.7.9 Formal methods reduce development risk
12.7.10 The FS promotes specialization of labor
12.7.11 The FS is used to solicit contract development
12.7.12 The FS is the basis for a contract
12.7.13 Suspension and resumption of development
12.7.14 Formal documents assist maintenance
13.1 SHORT-RUN COSTS VS. LONG-TERM BENEFITS
13.2 STATED OBJECTIONS TO UPGRADING
13.2.1 Formality takes too long
13.2.2 Our situation is special
13.2.3 Formality stifles creativity
13.2.4 Formality increases bureaucracy
13.2.5 Formality costs more
13.2.6 What we are using is good enough
13.2.7 Small changes require too much effort
13.2.8 Our design tool produces adequate documentation
13.3 ACTUAL OBSTACLES TO UPGRADING
13.3.1 Lack of understanding of formal methods
13.3.2 Disbelief of claimed results
13.3.3 Difficulty in getting cooperation
13.3.4 Fear of loss of control
13.3.5 Fear of promotion
13.3.6 Fear of commitment and accountability
13.4 OVERCOMING OBSTACLES
14.1 HOW TO GET THERE FROM HERE
14.1.1 New product startup
14.1.2 Existing product enhancement
14.2 A PARADIGM SHIFT IS NEEDED
14.3 ESTABLISHING DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURES
14.4 START WITH A ROBUST FS
14.5 MANAGEMENT’S ROLE
14.5.1 Understand formal principles and their implications
14.5.2 Evaluate costs and benefits
14.5.3 Decide and commit to that decision
14.5.4 Endorse, teach, motivate, and enforce formal procedures
P. 1
Specification-Driven Product Development

Specification-Driven Product Development

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3,451|Likes:
Published by iUniverseBooks
Many organizations develop their new products and services according to intuitive, informal methods. Substantial benefits can be obtained by upgrading these methods to formal alternatives. Improvements in product quality and significant reductions in time to market and development cost are reported as developers increase the maturity of their methods. However, organizations that imitate superficial aspects of formal systems while actually continuing informal development pay most of the costs of formality while receiving few of its benefits.

This book explains generic formal development methods and contrasts them with informal systems. In the Definition Phase of a formal program, the functions that customers want the product to have are decided upon and recorded in a Functional Specification. After this document is reviewed and approved, it drives the activities in the Design Phase that follows. Detailed recommendations for writing and reviewing Functional Specifications are provided.

To motivate organizations to upgrade their methodology, forty-eight benefits of formal methods are identified and described. Many quantitative results of real-world experience are presented. The principal obstacles that inhibit conversion of an informal environment to fully formal development are presented and analyzed. Specific techniques for overcoming both publicly stated objections and unstated actual obstacles are developed.
Many organizations develop their new products and services according to intuitive, informal methods. Substantial benefits can be obtained by upgrading these methods to formal alternatives. Improvements in product quality and significant reductions in time to market and development cost are reported as developers increase the maturity of their methods. However, organizations that imitate superficial aspects of formal systems while actually continuing informal development pay most of the costs of formality while receiving few of its benefits.

This book explains generic formal development methods and contrasts them with informal systems. In the Definition Phase of a formal program, the functions that customers want the product to have are decided upon and recorded in a Functional Specification. After this document is reviewed and approved, it drives the activities in the Design Phase that follows. Detailed recommendations for writing and reviewing Functional Specifications are provided.

To motivate organizations to upgrade their methodology, forty-eight benefits of formal methods are identified and described. Many quantitative results of real-world experience are presented. The principal obstacles that inhibit conversion of an informal environment to fully formal development are presented and analyzed. Specific techniques for overcoming both publicly stated objections and unstated actual obstacles are developed.

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Published by: iUniverseBooks on Jul 20, 2012
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781469797816
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