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Project of Rearch Metod & Tecniques

Project of Rearch Metod & Tecniques

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Published by Zain Qureshi

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Published by: Zain Qureshi on Jul 20, 2012
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Research Method And Techniques
Research Project
Title:
Impact of organizational policies and practices onemployee dissent(The Case of AG Office, Lahore)Acknowledgement
We are grateful to Allah almighty, for enabling us to fulfill this tiring but interestingjob for the completion of our project.We wouldn’t have done justice in presenting this project without mentioning thepeople around us who have been immense help for us. We would like to express ourheart-felt thanks to our course instructor
 
Miss. Seemab Ara Farooqi for her endlesssupport and guidance, which she rendered throughout the study, and provided uswith such thought provoking ideas, to help us with this project. It couldn’t havebeen simply possible to accomplish this task, without her thoughtful guidance andexpertise.In the end, we would like to conclude by saying that all errors, omissions and short-comings of this project lie on our responsibility and we hope that we are forgiven forthis.
 
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Table of Contents
 
3hand, is when an individual argues about controversial issues. Individuals willchoose their strategy for expressing dissent based on the strength of theirarguments. Kassing & Avtgis (1999) found an individual who was moreargumentative and less verbally aggressive was prone to use articulateddissent. On the other hand, an individual who lacks argumentative skills willresort to using a less direct and more aggressive strategy, latent dissent....12Work locus of control: ................................................................................. 12Work locus of control can also be a contributing influence. An individual withan internal locus of control orientation believes that they have control overtheir destiny. They feel the only way to bring about a desired outcome is toact. Individuals who see their lives as being controlled by outside forcesdemonstrate an external locus of control (Robbins, 2005). Kassing’s (2001)study demonstrated that employees with an internal locus of control usedarticulated dissent whereas an employee with an external locus of controlpreferred to use latent dissent..................................................................... 12Relational influence: .................................................................................... 13 This includes the types and qualities of relationships people maintain withintheir organization. Following are its types: ................................................... 13Employee Relationships: Employees develop and maintain variousrelationships within organizations. These relationships can influence thechoices employees make about expressing dissent. Employees may feeluncomfortable voicing their dissenting opinions in the presence of othersbecause they feel the best way to preserve relationships is to keep quiet.Homogenous groups also place pressure on individuals to conform. Sincemany people fear being embarrassed in front of their peers, they can easilybe lulled into consensus (Roberto, 2005)...................................................... 13Superior-Subordinate Relationship: The superior-subordinate relationship isan important relational factor. Employees who perceive they had a higher-quality relationship with their supervisors are more often to use articulateddissent. They feel their supervisors respect their opinions and that they havemutual influence and persuasion over the outcome of organizationaldecisions. Conversely, employees that perceive their relationship with theirsupervisor as low quality will resort to latent dissent. They feel that there isno room to voice their opinions (Kassing, 2000). Management, which modelsthe use of articulated dissent, contributes to the use of articulated dissentamong its employees (Kassing & Avtgis, 1999). Subordinates who witnesstheir supervisors successfully articulating dissent may be more likely andmore willing to adopt similar strategies. However, a supervisor must keep inmind that expressing dissent can be very difficult and uncomfortable forlower-level managers and employees. Therefore, supervisors should not onlytake actions to encourage dissent, they must be willing to seek outindividuals willing to say no to them (Roberto, 2005)................................... 13

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