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Design of Ultrasonic Obstacle Avoidance System of Fruit-Transportation GyrocarBased on ARM---IEEE2011

Design of Ultrasonic Obstacle Avoidance System of Fruit-Transportation GyrocarBased on ARM---IEEE2011

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Design of Ultrasonic Obstacle Avoidance System of Fruit-Transportation GyrocarBased on ARM
Yang Kai, Zhang Junmei, Li Wenbin, Yang Liu, Gao Lin,Xue Huixia
Beijing Forestry UniversityBeijing, ChinaCorresponding author: Zhang Junmei, joyzhangjm@163.com
The pilotless fruit-transportation gyrocar works inthe economic forest, avoiding the obstacle on the rail is theprerequisite of its safe working. An ultrasonic obstacleavoidance system of fruit-transportation gyrocar based onARM embedded system is introduced in this article. Thefunctions of the system are implemented. It could make thegyrocar stop when detect an obstacle and sends theinformation of obstacle to the monitoring client throughGPRS. Through the test, the ultrasonic obstacle avoidancesystem performs well and reliable.
Fruit-transportation gyrocar; ARM; Ultrasonicobstacle avoidance; GPRS 
Automatic fruit-transportation gyrocar, which working ineconomic forest area, has become a development trend of novel fruit-transportation vehicle. It has many advantagessuch as strong climbing ability, safe and steady movement,high carrying ability, flexible installation, and convenientdismantlement. However, the rail of the automatic fruit-transportation gyrocar is settled in the economic forest, sodesigning a system for avoiding the accident of obstaclessuch as the falling branches on the rail is essential to makethe gyrocar’s safe working.The work described in this paper is mainly concernedwith the ultrasonic obstacle avoidance system based onGPRS+ARM of the fruit-transportation gyrocar. The wholearchitecture, hardware and software design of the obstacleavoidance system will be discussed in the followingsections.II.
SYSTEMThe core of fruit-transportation gyrocar's ultrasonicobstacle avoidance system is ARM9 processor; the moduleswhich are connected with the processor are ultrasonicsensors, GPRS module, power supply module and thecontrol circuit of emergency shutdown. Its main function ismonitoring the obstacles within 4m in front of the gyrocar’sorbit, making the gyrocar stop timely if there are obstacles,sending the information of obstacle’s distance to themonitoring client.The hardware schematic of the system is depicted inFigure 1.
Figure 1. Structure of hardware
The Central Processing Unit 
In the ultrasonic obstacle avoidance system of fruit-transportation gyrocar, S3C2410 chip is chosen as the signal processing and control unit. It integrates an 8 channels 10 bitanalog to digital converter (ADC), 4 channels of PulseWidth Modulation (PWM) outputs, USB interface, 117 bituniversal I/O port and 24 bit exterior interrupt, 3 channelsUART, watch dog timer (WDT), JTAG interface, etc. Thischip is manufactured with CMOS technique and could work under 3.3V. This CPU provides the integrated functionalmodules thereby lowering the complexity of the wholecontrol system and making the system tightly packed, faster,accurate and reliable
The Ultrasonic Sensor 
The pilotless fruit-transportation gyrocar’s average speedis 2m/s; the braking safety distance is 3m, so the SRF05ultrasonic sensor whose effective distance is 1cm~4m waschosen. This ultrasonic sensor’s accuracy is 1cm, a problemthat general ultrasonic sensor has the blind spot whenmeasuring in short distance could be solved. SRF05ultrasonic sensor also saves the external infrared rangemodule’s hardware resources.
Figure 2. Schematic between SRF05 and CPUARM9CPUGPRSmoduleThe controlcircuit of emergencyshutdownUltrasonicsensor The power supply circuitSRF05EchoTrigger S3C2410int0GPG0
2011 Third International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation
978-0-7695-4296-6/11 $26.00 © 2011 IEEEDOI 10.1109/ICMTMA.2011.8551010
SRF05 ultrasonic sensor and ARM processor’sconnection diagram is shown in Figure 2.S3C2410 processor’s GPG0 interface is connected withSRF05 sensor’s trigger input pin, and send 10ms high-frequency pulse to trigger SRF05 sensor, then the sensor willsend ultrasonic in trigger state. SRF05 sensor’s echo output pin is connected with S3C2410’s external interrupt int0,when the SRF05 sensor’s echo output pin is in high level,S3C2410 processor open the timer; when the Echo output isin low level, it means that sensor has received the echo andthe pilotless fruit transporting gyrocar has already meet theobstacle, then the system goes into the interrupt serviceroutine, makes S3C2410 timer stops, and measure theobstacle’s distance with ultrasonic echo time.
GPRS Module
The MC35i GPRS Communication Module is used in theweighing system to transmit the command .The MC35i islight, less volume, and with rich AT instructions. Themodule can insert an external SIM card. S3C2410 connectswith the MC35i GPRS module through the asynchronousserial communication interface, and it sends AT commandsto control GPRS module and to transmit data. Figure 3shows the schematic between MC35i Module and S3C2410CPU.
Figure 3. Schematic between MC35i module and CPU
 Power Supply Module
Considering with the factor of low power, low-cost,reliable, and many other factors, as shown in Figure 4, a power supply module was developed to supply power todifferent parts, 5V Lithium Ion Battery supplies the voltageinput, after voltage regulation, the power chip AME1117-3.3V provides 3.3V voltage to I / O ports, the regulator block MIC5207BM5 used in the core board to provides voltage of 2.5V or 1.8V to CPU core.
     G     1
U1201AME1117-3.3VD1201LEDR12011K C1201100uFC1202100nFC1203100uFVDD33VDD50
IN1EN3GND2OUT5ADJ4U201MIC5207BM5D201LEDR2061K C20110nFC202470pFR20351K R204100K C21210uFVDD33 VDDalive
Figure 4. Power circuit of weighing system
The Control Circuit of Emergency Shutdown
Figure 5 is the control circuit of emergency shutdown, theRelay J’s normally closed contact connects in parallel withthe both ends of the ignition coil, JT’s reversed commandsignal and transistor9013 control the relay’s coil voltage.When the obstacle is measured while JT=1, transistor9013closes, the relay coil will lose power, its normally closedcontact will make the ignition coil short circuit, gasolineengine will be flameout. When JT=0, transistor9013saturated conduction, the relay coil get electric, its normallyclosed contact will make the ignition coil short circuit, thegasoline engine can ignition start normally
U101 NOTR251K R13K  N9013 NPNQ101RELAY-J
 t   e i   gni   t  i   on  c  oi  l  
JT order input
Figure 5. The control circuit of emergency shutdown
SYSTEMSystem's Software design is divided into several modulesincluding the main program, the ultrasonic emissionsubprogram, the ultrasonic interrupt service subprogram,GPRS subprogram, the emergency shutdown subprogram.The whole software program flow chart is respectivelyshown in Figure 6.After initializing the GPRS serial port, the ultrasonicsensor sends the ultrasonic wave constantly. When thetrigger is interrupted after detected the echo, the programgoes into the interrupt service sub-program which wouldmeasure the obstacle’s distance and send the information of distance to the monitoring client by GPRS.
Figure 6. Flow chart of the overall programming
Ultrasonic Emission Subprogram
Obstacle avoidance system sends the high-frequency pulses to trigger SRF05 ultrasonic sensor by S3C2410 processor’s GPG0 port. So the subprogram open_sensor()was designed to achieve this function, open_sensor()’s flowchart is shown in figure7.
Figure 7. Flow chart of emitting ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Interrupt Service Subprogram
By using the timer’s counter function and externalinterrupt of S3C2410 processor, we could measure theobstacle’s distance by echo time. The external interrupt int0is connected with ultrasonic Echo output, and then set it betriggered in the falling edge. When the echo is detected, the program goes into the interrupt service sub-program tocalculate the obstacle’s distance
Figure 8. Flow chart of ultrasonic interrupt service sub-program
GPRS Subprogram
In the system, GPRS module communicates withS3C2410 through UART0 port. S3C2410 sends ATcommands to GPRS module and receive data which istransmitted by GPRS module. When S3C2410 need to senda short message, it sends AT commands to connect withGPRS module firstly. If the fruit-transportation gyrocar detected an obstacle, the GPRS subprogram would send theinformation of obstacle’s distance to the monitoring client.The flow chart is shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9. GPRS flow chart of sending text messages
The Emergency Shutdown Subprogram
The pilotless fruit-transportation gyrocar is powered by a3KW gasoline; emergency shutdown circuit is connected tothe gasoline engine's ignition coil. The gasoline engine can be extinction when an I/O port of S3C2410 sends the highlevel to the emergency stop circuit. The emergencyshutdown subprogram flow chart is shown in Figure10.
InitiationSend messageIs GPRS ok?Y NBeginENDMeasure the echo timeClear the interrupt flagMeasure the distanceENDStop the timer BeginSet GPG0 as outputClear the dates of GPG0GPG0 sends the pulseClear the dates of GPG0ENDInitiationBeinIs there obstacle?Trigger the sensor Sends messageInitiationBeginEND NY

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