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Calder, N. 1981. Zakāt in Imāmī Shī'ī Jurisprudence, from the Tenth to the Sixteenth Century A.D.

Calder, N. 1981. Zakāt in Imāmī Shī'ī Jurisprudence, from the Tenth to the Sixteenth Century A.D.

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Zakāt in Imāmī Shī'ī Jurisprudence, from the Tenth to the Sixteenth Century A.D.Author(s): Norman CalderReviewed work(s):Source:
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,
Vol. 44,No. 3 (1981), pp. 468-480Published by:
on behalf of
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Accessed: 14/05/2012 19:55
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ZAKATINIMAMISHI'IJURISPRUDENCE,FROMTHETENTHTOTHESIXTEENTHCENTURYA.D.By
NORMANCALDER
Mawardi said ofzakdt that it waspaidtahratanli-ahlihama'iinatanli-ahlal-sahman,asapurificationfor thedonorand asupportfor therecipient.1Ithas thusa dualaspect.As asocial tax itprovidesforthe transfer of wealthfromcertainproductiveclassesofsocietytocertainpoorornon-productiveclasses.Asareligiousdutyitisofessentiallythesametypeassalat,hajj**,tc.,afarida'ala1-'ayn.Like these it isaritualwhose correctperformanceinvolvesanattentiontoprecisedetailsofquantity(nasab),timing(al-hawl),andin-tention(niyya)whichmaybeirrelevantoreveninimicaltotheoptimumfulfilmentof the social aim.Thezakitdonorsweredefinedas thosepossessedofproductivewealthderived frompastoralism,agricultureortrade.2Therecipientsweredividedintoeight categories,five ofwhichmaybe subsumedunder theheadingsofthepoor,theneedyorthoseunderparticulardifficulties;theother threewerethetax-collectingandmilitaryclasses(al-'dmiiin,f"sabilalldh,al-mu'allafa).Sunnijuristsingeneral acknowledgedthatdefactorulers had a certainrighttocollectanddistribute thezakat,'becausethey(the wuldt)are the trustees(umand')over the collection of zakdt romthe donors on behalf of therecipients
'.3
Shafi'I(d. 204/820),however,perceivedthat thepolitical rightsof thewulatmightconflictwith theindividualneedforreligiousreward.Forthe latteritwasnecessarythatthezakdt bepaidataparticulartime(al-hawl):Shdfi'Iindicated thatif the tax-collector didnotarrive attheappropriatemomentthedonor should distributethezakThimself.4Likewise withregardtoniyyaShdfi'i considereditpreferable(wa-ahabbulayya)that the individual shouldundertakehis own distribution in orderto be sure about thedischargeof hisreligiousduty (fa-yakiin'aldyaqinminadd'ihd).5Therewas thus sometensionbetween thepoliticalrightsoftherulerandthereligiousneeds of the individualdonor.Therulerwasentitled to useonepartofthezakatcollected--thatof the'amilfin-tofinancehistax-collectingbureaucracy: wa-yu'tda'wanidaratwali1-sadaqa,tmaybegivento the aidesinthe administrationofthewal!1-sadaqa.6Therewas, however,forShdfi'iapossibility,when the donor distributedthezakltdirectly,thatthe shareof the 'amilmightbesaqit (lapsed).7Nevertheless,on thewhole,forShafi'ias for laterSunnijuriststhesystemofreligioustaxationimpliedthe existenceof agovernmentwhocollectedanddistributed. Ofwhatwas collectedthegovernmentmight legitimatelyusethree out ofeight partsforbureaucraticandmilitarypurposes.Shdfi'iacknowledged,evenstressed,thatthe individualneed for salvationcouldpre-empttherightoftheruler tocollect anddistribute;andhewas familiar withthepossibilityand theterminologyofsuqlat.Inhis worksjuristicrulesareset outasidealswith
1MEwardi,Al-Ablakmal-Sul.tniyya,ed.Enger,Bonn, 1853,195;cf. also N. P.Aghnides,Mohammedantheories of finance,NewYork,1916,p.323,n. 1.
2
See,for furtherdetails,mostlycommon to Sunnis andShi'is,Aghnides,op.cit.,203-95.
3
MuhammadibnIdrisal-ShEfi'i,Kitibal-Umm, Cairo, 1388,
I,
70.*ibid.,15.5ibid.,19.
6
ibid.,61.
7ibid., 68;cf.AbfiYiisuf,Kitebal-Kharaj,Cairo,1352,81.
 
ZAKAT IN
IMAMISHi'iJURISPRUDENCE
469
littlereferencetothe actualpracticeof theadministration;laterSunniwriters,it willbeshown,manifestedaratherdifferent concerntoprovidethegreatestdegreeoflegitimacyforthe actualpracticeofdefactopowers.WorksofImimifiqhemergedonlyinthe secondhalfofthe tenthcentury
A.D.
andfirstachieved ahighdegreeoftechnicalexcellencein thewritingsofMuh1ammadbnHasanal-Tfisi:
8
first,concisely,inhis Kitabal-Nihdyaandlater,expansively,inhisKitabal-Mabsfit.DefiningtheImamiattitudetozakathedeclared thatintheabsenceofthe imdmor hisappointee(mannasabahu1-imim)theshares ofthesu'dt/'amilfin,themu'allafaandjihidwere
sdqit.9
Thetermmannasabahu1-imdmreferspresumablyto acontemporaryoftheimdm,certainlyinthiscontexttoanentitydeemedabsent.DuringtheGhayba,then,theImamisemphasizedthedissociationof thesacred fromtheprofanebydenyingpreciselythoseshareswhich wouldhaveservedtheadministrative andmilitaryneeds ofthegovernment.Theywereenabledtherebyto affirmtheirindependenceofthepoliticalinstitutionand tostressthereligiousrather thanthepoliticalaspectsofzakit.Later,inhisMabst.,ilsi confirmedthatthe sharesof themu'allafaandthe 'amilweresaqit,but,byprovidinganextendeddefinitionofsabilallah,hewasenabled toaffirmitscontemporaryoperancy.10Sabilallahwastheredefinedasincludingthebuildingofmosques,theupkeepofbridgesandothermasalih."lThescholarlyclassthus hada claimonzakdtonlyinsofarasreligiousbuildingswereconcerned.Ja'faribn Sa'idal-Muhaqqiqal-HIilliconfirmedthattheshares ofthe 'dmilandthemu'allafaweresaqit,acceptedtheextendeddefinition ofsabil allahandaddedto it theconsiderationthatjihadmightbepossibleevenin theabsenceoftheimam.1
2
asanibnYiisufibnal-Mutahharal-'Alldma,agenerationlater,notonlyacceptedthepossibilitybutinferred fromitthattheshareofthemu'allafa,too,could notcontinuesaqit.::J.~-.d
I
.ll
j9il
e•~r
.
i
Jl.rPj3-.-
-.jiUit,,1.13
Theshare ofthe'dmil, however,wouldappeartohavebeenleft asTilsihaddefinedit:'theshareof themnu'allafa,he sd'?andtheghaziaresaqitduringtheGhayba-exceptwhenthere isneedofjihed'.14It isdifficulttosee howtheexceptivephrasecanhave
,ThemajorImAmifuqahi'intheperiodunderdiscussion,andthose oftheirworkswhichconstitutethe mainsources forthepresentstudyare:M. ibnH.asanal-Tfisi(d.460/1067):Kitabal-Nihdya,Beirut,1970,Kitabal-Mabs?it,Persia,1271,n.p.(referencestoTilsi,Mabsi.t,aklt,7indicate theseventhpageofthesectiononzaklt);M. ibnAhmadibnIdrisal-Hilli(d.598/1202):KitabSard'ir
al-Isl8m,
Persia,1270/1854,n.p.(referencesgiventoBritishMuseumeditionwheretheincipitisp.2);Ja'far ibnHasanal-Muhaqqiqal-.Hilli(d.676/1277):Shard'i'al-Islim,4vols.,Najaf,1389/1969,Al-Mukhtasaral-Ndfi',Cairo,1376(Qumreprint);Hasanibn Yiisufibnal-Mutahharal-Hilli(d.726/1325):KitabMukhtalifal-Shi'a,4vols. in1,Persia,1324/1906,KitabQawd'idal-Ahkiim,inKaraki,Jami'al-Maqdsid(seebelow),KitabTabriral-Ahkdm,2vols., Persia,1314/1896;Shamsal-DinibnMakkial-Shahidal-Awwal(d.786/1384-5):Al-Lum'atal-Dimashqiyya,inShahidII,Rawda(seebelow);'AliibnHusaynibn'Abdal-'Alial-Karaki(d.937/1530-1or940/1533-4):KitabJami'al-Maqdsid
ft
sharbal-Qawd'id,2vols.,Tehran,1395;Zaynal-Dinibn 'Alial-Shahidal-Thani(d.960/1559):Masalikal-if/hdmisharharard'i'al-Islm,2vols.,Persia,1310and1314,Al-Rawdatal-Bahiyya
ft
sharbal-Lum'atal-Dimashqiyya,Tabriz,1271.9Tilsi,Nihdya,185.Forfurtherdiscussion ofthe term8sqitinthiskind ofcontext,seeal-Sharifal-Murtad.,Al-Shdfi,Tehran,1301/1884,40-41,andTiisi,Kitabal-Ghayba,Najaf,1385,64;acceptanceoftheterm
s8qit
inthiskind ofcontextwouldseem tohavebeenfirstjustifiedbyTilsi.1'Tfisi,
Mabsz.ft,
zakt,17-18.
1"
AnindicationthatSunni juristicworks werepartofthejuristicpooldrawnuponbyShi'ijurists:cf.AbilYfisuf,op.cit.,81.
12
Muhaqqiq,Shard'i',I,162.(Tilsialsoacknowledgedthevalidityofdefensivejihid,butthisdid notaffecthisdiscussionofzakAit.)
1'
'Allma,Tabrir,68.14dem,Qawd'id,22.

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