symmetrically extrude from the tip of a bone, both new bones will be children of the bone they were extrudedfrom. When you move just one side of a symmetrical pair, the other will move as well, saving lots of timewhen building symmetrical armatures.In addition, the bones are automatically given "_L" and "_R" suffixes. These suffixes are important. If youremove either one, the symmetrical relationship is broken.Adding a bone symmetrically: To add a bone symmetrically, extrude (Shift-E) from the root of any bone. Thiswill create a bone without a parent.If you prefer to work with a single side of an armature at a time, you can always create only, say, the leftside, then Shift-D duplicate your work, scale it along the X-axis (use -1 for a scale factor) and use the W-key"Flip Left-Right Names" function to mirror your armature.Figure RSD.05: The single bone was added normally, with the toolbox Add->Bone command. The two setsof bone chains were added with Symmetrical extrusion.Moving bones: To arrange the armature inside the mesh, you can move entire bones or individual roots andtips. When two bones are connected, you can move just the joint between them. Don't forget the snap menu(Shift-S), which lets you use the 3D cursor as a reference point for bones as it does for objects.Callout:- Bones can be added from the toolbox, or by extruding existing bones with the E-key or Ctrl-LMB clicking.- When "X-Axis Mirror" is enabled in the armatures Edit buttons, changes to one side of the armature alsohappen to the other. Shift-E extrudes symmetrically.Bone Parent/Child and Connected RelationshipsLike other Blender objects, bones can have parent/child relationships. Building these relationships correctlyis essential to a properly functioning rig. If you recall from the introductory animation chapter, a child objectcan move independently of its parent, but will be transformed as a single object with the parent if the parentmoves. This functionality is much the same with armatures and bones.For example, the bones of a human arm are arranged in just such a parent/child relationship. The hand canmove on its own, as can the lower arm. However, if the upper arm moves, both the lower arm and handmust move with it. So, in this example, the hand is the child of the lower arm, which is in turn the child of theupper arm.As we mentioned before, bones that are extruded from the tips of other bones are created as children bydefault. This makes the creation of chains of bones like arms very simple.If you have already existing bones that you wish to create a parent/child relationship for, when one was notcreated by default, it is easy to create one. Just as you create the same relationships with regular objects,first select the child object. Then, Shift-RMB select the parent and press Ctrl-P.There is one major difference, though, between object parenting and bone parenting. With bones,parent/child objects can be either connected or disconnected. A disconnected child bone works exactly likethe parent/child relationship you are used to from Object mode. A connected child object, however, cannottranslate independently of its parent - its root is the parent's tip. It can still rotate freely, but cannot moveaway from the parent bone.So really, in our earlier example of a human arm, it would be more precise to say that the hand is theconnected child of the lower arm, which is the connected child of the upper arm. In fact, there are no actual joint relationships in the human body that can be properly termed disconnected, as the human body doesnot, hopefully, come apart.