Figure 3. Particle deposition efficiency vs Inertial parameter in the nasalcavity comparisons with other experimental data.
The deposition fraction in each region (nasal cavity;pharynx and larynx; tracheobronchial airways) in Figure 4shows that only particles
10µm persist deep into therespiratory airways from the pharynx and larynx region andfurther downstream. For all particles sizes tested, the highestregional deposition is found in the nasal cavity. However for10µm particles where the total deposition efficiency for theentire model reaches 42.3%, a majority of particles are found todeposit in the pharynx and larynx region.
micron particle (µm)
D e p o s i t i o n f r a c t i o n ( % )
Entire modelNasal cavityPharynx & LarynxTracheobronchial airway
Figure 4. Deposition fraction in the different regions of the respiratoryairway and also the entire respiratory model.
Visualisation of particle deposition patterns are performedfor two distinctly different particle sizes, (1
m and 20
m) interms of their inertial property. 1
m particles exhibit lowinertia which means that they are able to follow the flowstreamlines. This is evident in Figure 5a where the totaldeposition efficiency for the whole respiratory model is 7%.For the larger particle of 20µm there is a cluster of particlesthat deposit early, impacting at the roof immediately after thenostril opening (Figure 5b). Another cluster of particles arefound at the posterior end of the nasal cavity, and a third clusterdownstream just before the larynx. These locations appear inregions where the inhaled air changes direction as it istransported through the nasal cavity. For example, the flowbegins at the nostrils, vertically aligned.
Side View Frontal Viewa) 1µm particle deposition - Total deposition efficiency is 7%.Side View Frontal Viewb) 20µm particle deposition pattern. Total deposition efficiency is 99%.
Figure 5. Particle deposition patterns for (a) 1µm particle and (b) 20µmparticle for a flow rate of 15 L/min. Particles are coloured by velocitymagnitude [m/s].
The flow changes direction to a horizontal flow turningapproximately 90
. This occurs again at the posterior end of thenasal cavity where the flow changes from horizontal tovertically down as it enters the pharyngeal region. Finally justbefore the larynx, where the airway decreases in cross-sectionalarea, the flow is accelerated which enhances the inertialimpaction of the transported particle. The larynx is well knownfor its functionality in sound production which produced by thegeometry which changes dramatically by first decreasing incross sectional area, reaching a minimum before diverging andexpanding in its cross-sectional area. This is typical of aconverging-diverging nozzle which exhibits sharp pressuregradients, and rapid changes in velocities leading to complexflow patterns. Slice CC’ in Figure 6 is upstream to the larynx asthe flow is about to accelerate due to the converging geometrywhich shows the streamlines directed from the posterior C’ tothe anterior side C’ of the airway.
Figure 6. Velocity magnitude contours in [m/s] for slice CC’ superior orupstream to the larynx, and slice DD’ which is inferior or downstream of thelarynx.