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Ast Spraysim 13-Blog

Ast Spraysim 13-Blog

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Published by kinthavong
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Published by: kinthavong on Jul 23, 2012
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11/05/2013

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This paper is published in:
Fung, M. C., Inthavong, K., Yang, W. and Tu, J. (2012). CFD Modeling of SprayAtomization for a Nasal Spray Device.
Aerosol Science and Technology 
46:1219-1226.
CFD Modeling of Spray Atomization for a Nasal Spray Device
Man Chiu Fung
1
, Kiao Inthavong
1
, William Yang
2
, Jiyuan Tu
1
1
School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Australia
2
 Division of Minerals, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Clayton,Victoria, Australia
 ABSTRACT
The purpose of this work is to evaluate numerical modelling techniques for simulation of sprayatomization from a nasal spray device to complement experimental measurements previously. Inthe past, spray breakup models have not been applied to nasal spray applications, but rather forhigh pressure applications such as combustion, and industry and agricultural spraying. Theparameters in breakup model were not optimized for this kind of low pressure injection withsmall scale atomizer. Thus, there is a need to tune the spray model constants of the LinearInstability Sheet Atomization (LISA) atomization model and evaluate its performance for lowpressure applications such as those found in nasal spray devices.Some parameters that wereevaluated include the dispersion angle and the liquid sheet constant which influences the dropletsize distribution and dispersion. The simulation results were evaluated against experimental datathat has been previously performed. It was found that the LISA model provided goodcomparisons when a dispersion angle of 3
o
and a liquid sheet constant of 1 were used. Inaddition, three scenarios were investigated: i) influence of fluid-droplet coupling; ii) increase inmass flow rate and; iii) changing the orientation from downwards spray to upwards spray.
 
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Nomenclature
Symbolsa
1
 , a
2,
a
3
drag coefficient constantsapplied to smooth sphericaldroplets over several rangesof droplet Reynolds number
d, D
droplet diameter
0
volume median diameterD
30
volume mean diameterD
32
Sauter mean diameter
additional acceleration term
g
gravitational acceleration
h
liquid sheet thickness
turbulent kinetic energy
w
atomization wave number,defined as
=

 
mass flow rate
 M 
mass
 M 
 p
momentum exchangebetween droplets and airOh Ohnesorge number, definedas
ℎ =
 
 
P
pressure
q
spread parameterRe Reynolds number
droplet radius
0
 
the radial distance from theaxial line to the mid-line of liquid sheet at atomizer exit
time
u, U 
velocity
slip
slip velocity
velocity vector of airWe Weber number defined as
 =

 
Greek characters
ε
 
turbulent dissipation
θ 
spray half cone angle
σ 
 
liquid surface tension
σ 
g
geometric standard deviation
 
 ρ
 
density
 
initial wave amplitude
 µ
 
dynamic viscosity
ω
 
complex growth rate, definedas
ω
=
ω
+ i
ω
i
 
Superscript/subscripts
droplet phase
g
gas phase
i, j, k 
tensor coordinates
l
liquid
n nozzle
turbulent
 
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INTRODUCTION
Drug delivery via the nasal route presents new opportunities to deliver systemic drugs that havetraditionally been delivered orally or intravenous. The main advantages include increased patientcompliance (less painful than injections) and a reduction in drug degradation (due to avoidance of the digestive system). Evaluation of nasal spray performance suggested by the US Food and DrugAdministration include the external spray characteristics such as spray cone, shape, plume, andangle.
 In vivo
studies by Suman et al. (2002) determined deposition patterns by 2D gammascintigraphy on human volunteers and concluded that some
in vitro
tests could detect performancedifferences between the spray pumps, however, these differences did not translate into differencesin the deposition patterns
in vivo
. Computational simulations using Computational FluidDynamics (CFD) present an alternative method for evaluating spray performance. There havebeen a few reported CFD studies on the deposition sites of nasal spray drug delivery (Inthavong etal. 2006; Kimbell et al. 2007) however in these studies the initial droplet conditions used, do notreplicate the realistic behaviour of atomized spray droplets from a nasal spray delivery device.Improvements to the current state of CFD simulations for virtual drug delivery predictions can bemade by applying more realistic initial droplet conditions which are important to its downstreambehaviour. Recent studies of pharmaceutical delivery of drugs via the oral cavity using metered-dose-inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have been performed have employedexperimental measurements to determine droplet size distributions after breakup that are thenused as initial conditions for the spray nozzle simulations (Longest and Hindle 2009; Longest etal. 2007; Longest et al. 2012). Using this approach good agreement with experimental depositioncharacteristics were achieved for a capillary aerosol generator (CAG), MDI, and the softmistRespimat inhaler, all if which are spray devices. Therefore experimental measurements of spraycharacteristics are vitally important for extending the accuracy of pharmaceutical spray drugdelivery.Experimental visualisation and measurements of nasal spray characteristics have been performedand the data reported by these studies contributes greatly to the understanding and modelling of nasal spray droplets. These studies include the work by Cheng et al. (2001) measured the spraycone angle and droplet size distribution of four different nasal spray pumps and correlated thisdata with droplet deposition sites in the nasal cavity experimentally. They conclude that largerdroplets and a wider spray angle increased deposition in the anterior region of the nasal airway.Dayal et al. (2004) studied the impact of actuation force, rheological properties of the drug

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