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THEHISTORY OFCHINAADVISORY BOARDJohn T. AlexanderProfessor of History and Russian and European Studies,University of KansasRobert A. DivineGeorge W. Little
eld Professor in American History Emeritus,University of Texas at AustinJohn V. LombardiProfessor of History,University of FloridaTHEHISTORY OFCHINASecond EditionDavid Curtis WrightThe Greenwood Histories of the Modern NationsFrank W. Thackeray and John E. Findling, Series EditorsCopyright 2011 by David Curtis WrightAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in areview, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataWright, David Curtis, 1960–The history of China / David Curtis Wright. — 2nd ed.p. cm. — (Greenwood histories of the modern nations)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978–0–313–37748–8 (hardcopy : alk. paper) — ISBN 978–0–313–37749–5 (ebook)1. China—History. I. Title.DS735.A2W74 2011951—dc22 2011010866ISBN 978–0–313–37748–8EISBN 978–0–313–37749–51514131211 12345This book is also available on the World Wide Web as an eBook.Visit www.abc-clio.com for details.GreenwoodAn Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLCABC-CLIO, LLC130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911Santa Barbara, California 93116-1911This book is printed on acid-free paperManufactured in the United States of AmericaTo my son TimothyThis page intentionally left blank ContentsSeries Foreword ixPreface to the Second Edition xiiiTimeline of Historical Events xv1 Geography, Government, Population, and Early History 12 Pre-Imperial China: ca. 1122–221 B.C. 173 Early Imperial China: 221 B.C.–A.D. 589 454 Middle and Late Imperial China: A.D. 589–ca. 1800 675 The Tumultuous Nineteenth Century: ExternalAggression and Internal Chaos 996 Revolution and Republic 1177 The People’s Republic: From First Breathto Mao’s Death 1458 Deng’s China 1819 China in the 1990s 199
10 The Twenty-First Century: Dealing with a Pushy China 20911 A Prosperous and Confused Island: Taiwan since 1945 245Notable People in the History of China 281Chinese Dynasties 297Glossary of Selected Terms 299Works Cited 303Bibliographic Essay 309Index 315viii ContentsSeries ForewordThe Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations series is intended to pro-vide students and interested laypeople with up-to-date, concise, andanalytical histories of many of the nations of the contemporary world.Not since the 1960s has there been a systematic attempt to publish aseries of national histories, and as series advisors, we believe that thisseries will prove to be a valuable contribution to our understandingof other countries in our increasingly interdependent world.Some 40 years ago, at the end of the 1960s, the Cold War was anaccepted reality of global politics. The process of decolonization wasstill in progress, the idea of a uni
ed Europe with a single currencywas unheard of, the United States was mired in a war in Vietnam,and the economic boom in Asia was still years in the future. RichardNixon was president of the United States, Mao Tse-tung (not yet MaoZedong) ruled China, Leonid Brezhnev guided the Soviet Union, andHarold Wilson was prime minister of the United Kingdom. Authori-tarian dictators still controlled most of Latin America, the Middle Eastwas reeling in the wake of the Six-Day War, and Shah MohammadReza Pahlavi was at the height of his power in Iran.Since then, the Cold War has ended, the Soviet Union has vanished,leaving 15 independent republics in its wake, the advent of thecomputer age hasradically transformed global communications, therising demand for oil makes the Middle East still a dangerous
ash-point, and the rise of new economic powers like the People’s Republicof China and India threatens to bring about a new world order. All ofthese developments have had a dramatic impact on the recent historyof every nation of the world.For this series, which was launched in 1998, we
rst selected nationswhose political, economic, and socio-cultural affairs marked them asamong the most important of our time. For each nation, we found anauthor who was recognized as a specialist in the history of that nation.These authors worked cooperatively with us and with GreenwoodPress to produce volumes that re
ected current research on theirnations and that are interesting and informative to their readers. Inthe
rst decade of the series, more than 40 volumes were published,and as of 2008, some are moving into second editions.The success of the series has encouraged us to broaden our scope toinclude additional nations, whose histories have had signi
cant effectson their regions, if not on the entire world. In addition, geopoliticalchanges have elevated other nations into positions of greater impor-tance in world affairs and, so, we have chosen to include them in thisseries as well. The importance of a series such as this cannot be under-estimated. As a superpower whose in
uence is felt all over the world,the United States can claim a “special” relationship with almost everyother nation. Yet many Americans know very little about the historiesof nations with which the United States relates. How did they get to bethe way they are? What kind of political systems have evolved there?What kind of in
uence do they have on their own regions? What arethe dominant political, religious, and cultural forces that move theirleaders? These and many other questions are answered in the volumesof this series.The authors who contribute to this series write comprehensive his-
tories of their nations, dating back, in some instances, to prehistorictimes. Each of them, however, has devoted a signi
cant portion oftheir book to events of the past 40 years because the modern era hascontributed the most to contemporary issues that have an impact onU.S. policy. Authors make every effort to be as up-to-date as possibleso that readers can bene
t from discussion and analysis of recentevents.In addition to the historical narrative, each volume contains anintroductory chapter giving an overview of that country’s geography,political institutions, economic structure, and cultural attributes. Thisis meant to give readers a snapshot of the nation as it exists in thex Series Forewordcontemporary world. Each history also includes supplementary infor-mation following the narrative, which may include a timeline that rep-resents a succinct chronology of the nation’s historical evolution,biographical sketches of the nation’s most important historical
gures,and a glossary of important terms or concepts that are usuallyexpressed in a foreign language. Finally, each author prepares a com-prehensive bibliography for readers who wish to pursue the subjectfurther.Readers of these volumes will
nd them fascinating and well-written. More importantly, they will come away with a better under-standing of the contemporary world and the nations that comprise it.As series advisors, we hope that this series will contribute to a height-ened sense of global understanding as we move through the earlyyears of the twenty-
rst century.Frank W. Thackeray and John E. FindlingIndiana University SoutheastSeries Foreword xiThis page intentionally left blank Preface to the Second EditionThis revised edition contains 30,000 more words than the
rst andincludes new chapters on Taiwan and on mainland China in thetwenty-
rst century. I have also included new material in several ofthe other chapters as well, particularly eyewitness primary accountsof the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution (the twin folliesof Mao’s rule over China), and the Tiananmen Massacre. May Chinanever again have to abide such tragically tumultuous times and thetyrants who cause them.The bibliography and bibliography essay are expanded, and there isa new section on Internet resources about China.Thanks are due Kaitlin Ciarmiello at Greenwood Press/ABC-Cliofor her patience and forbearance as I completed this revised editionduring a move from one residence to another.My oldest son Timothy will soon will soon be married, and I dedi-cate this revised edition to him and the new life adventure on whichhe is about to embark.Calgary22 February 2010This page intentionally left blank Timeline of Historical EventsB.C.1300s Decimal system understood and used1384 Shang establishes last capital, near Anyang1122? Shang overthrown; Zhou established800s Decline of Western Zhou770 Eastern Zhou foundedca. 600–300 Hundred Schools551 Birth of Confucius500s Iron plows used300s Compass invented, trace harness developed and used, anddrilling for natural gas336 First use of crossbow on the battle

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