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Radioactive Waste Disposal in the Ocean - US Dept of Commerce

Radioactive Waste Disposal in the Ocean - US Dept of Commerce

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RADIOACTIVE-WASTE DISPOSAL
IN THE
OCEAN
Handbook
58
U.
S.
Department
of
Commerce
National
Bureau
of
Standards
 
U.
S.
Department
of
Commerce,
Sinclair
Weeks,
Secretary
NationalBureau
of
Standards,
A.
V.
Astin, Director
Radioactive-Waste Disposalin theOcean
Recommendations
of
theNational Committee on Radiation Protection
National Bureau
of
Standards Handbook
58
Issued August
25, 1954
For sale bv
the Suoerlntendentof
Documents.
Washlllll.ton 25, D. C
.•
Price
20
cent.
 
Contents
Page
Preface_1.
Introduction and summary
of
recommendations
---
--
1.1.
Introduction
__
..
--------
1.2.
Summary
of
recommcndations
_____
--
a. Sitc
_____ -_
b.
Transportatioll_
-_c.
Regulations
___
---
d.
Methods
of
disposal-packaged
_
_e.
1\Iethods
of
disposal-bulk_
f.
1\lethods
of
disposal-pipf'line
g. Records__ _ ________
_
2.
General considerations
___
_2.1.
Publicrelations aspect
2.2.
Finality
of
disposaL
2.3.
Accidental hazards
____
_2.4.
Rate
of
disposaL
__
_2.5.
General
responsibilities
__
_
3.Charact.eristics
of
the
ocean_ -_3.1.
Volume
of
oceanwaters
_.
3.2.
Relief
of
the
ocean
basins
__
_
3.:3.
Chemical composition
of
sea
water
__
3.4.
Physical properties
of
sea water_
3.5.
Currents and
mixing
__
3.6.
Biology
of
the
oeeans_
:{.
7.
Marine sediments
__
_
:~.S.
Pollutioll_4.
Fate
of
radioadive
materials introduced into the
oceall
__
4.1.
Factors
favoring dilution or
di,;persaL
___
_4.2.
Direet
hazards ________
._
·1.3.
Indirect
hazards__ _ _____ . _
5.
Considerations
for
selection
of a
disposal
method
___
_6.
Meansof
disposaL
_ _ _
.'
_
_.
_______ _6.1.
Packaged
dispoRaL _ _ _
.
_____ .6.2.
Bulkdisposal
at
sea
__
_6.3.
Pipeline
disposaL
__
i.
Designation
or
"election
of
sites
of
disposaL_
8.
Hecommended containersfor
packaged
disposal
in
the
ocean_8.1.
General characteristics
_
__
_8.2.
1\1
aterials
of
constructioll
__
8.:~.
Design
of
package_
SA. Speciflc
gravity
of
packagp
_
_8.5.
IdentificatioIL_
9.
Recommendations for
the transportation
of
radioactive
rna
terials
__
10.
General responsibilit
ies
alld problems
for
consideration
_____ _11.
References_--__
_________ .
_______
_
IV
III
11
2
22
33
3
4
4
4
4
5
;3
6677
78
10
11
11
1415
17
1717
18
19
22
22
22
24
24
25
252626
272727
28
30
Radioactive-Waste Disposal
in the
Ocean
1.
Introduction
and
Summary
ofRecommendations
1.1.
Introduction
The
ever-increasing production
and
use
of
radioactiYeisotopes
has
raised illlmerous quest ions concerning
theirhandling, transportation, and
ultImate disposal.
It
appears
that
the
sea
may
be
an appropriate
place
for the
disposal
of intermediate and
large amounts
of
isotopes
having
long
half-lives
(more
than
1
year) or
high
radiotoxicity.
It
is
purpose
of this Handbook
to outline some
of the
factors
that
must
be considered in
the
disposal in
the
ocean
of
unwanted radioactive wastes.
Two
factors will generally be involved
in any
decision
as
to
the
method
of
disposal
employed-safety
and
convenience.
In
many
instances where
the
quantities are small
or
the half
Ii
-es
relat ively
short,
unwanted
isotopes
or
contaminated
equipment.
and
materials may
be safely disposed
of
bystOl'age, flushing
into
the or drain
incinera-tion,
or
by
burial
on land.' , ehoice between sea disposal
and other
methods
will
in
part
be cletcrmined by
the quantityofthe
radioactive
material,
its
half-life,
and
i
Is
type;but
in
many
instances
the
selection
IlUlV
be based upon conven·jPllce
ll11d
economics.
It
seems
ve'i·y
reasonable to assume
that
producers
or
users
of
radioactive isotopes located on
or
'Some
phases
of
th~se
various
llwthods
are
di~CllSSNI
III
l,revious
r"pOI·ts
of
this
Committe!;. See
Xational Burellu
of
Standards
Handbook
42,
Safe
han
dling-
of
ratijoacti,,, isotopcs;
NBS
HandlJOok
48.
Control and
removal
of
l'adioa('tivl?
contamination
in
lahoratol'i(~s:
NBS Handbook
49,
Recommenda~
Hans
for
waste
disposal of
phosphorns-32
and
iOdine-Ii'll
for medical
u~ers;
and
XBS
Handbook
5:1.
ReNlIll!nPIH1ariolls
for
the
dis]","al of carboll-l-!
wastes.
2
'rills is
not
to
imlll~'
tllat
dls]l("al
by
hurlal
in soil
should
be
limited tosmall
~Ilalltities
aud sbort
balf-Ii\'es.
Land
~torage
of
solids
by
oirect
burial
or
in
vHultS,
and
of
Tf'sldu(1's
from
liqllid
wastes
in
U1Hl~rgronnd
tanks,
ma;\-o
b~
safe in
specific
areas.
'l'here will
he a
report
on
this subject
by
tile
Xational
COlllmitte(>
on
Radiation Protection
in
til"
ll<?ar
futur
...
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