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Sicily - the infinite island

Sicily - the infinite island

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Published by: SoparlaVerde on Jul 24, 2012
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Geography and geology
Placed at the centre of the Mediterranean,Sicily is the biggest island in the latter (25,460square metres). Around it there is a series of smaller islands: to the north the AeolianIslands and Ustica, to the west the Egadi, tothe south the Pelagie and Pantelleria (altogeth-er 25,708 square metres). Its coast, prevalentlyrocky to the north, and sandy to the south, is1000 km. long. There is great movement in theSicilian landscape: the island is mountainousand hilly, with only one big plain nearCatania.The most important massif is the Etna one(the whole area of which is protected by a bignature park), in the eastern part of Sicily. Thevolcano, 3300 m. high, is active, and is thebiggest one in Europe.Along the northern coast, from east towest, there is a stretch of the Peloritans, theNebrodi and the Madonie mountains, whose peaks go up to 2000 metres. Just west of theriver Torto, the Madonie give way to irregularcalcareous formations, isolated or in groups,dominating roundish low hills.To the east, between Messina and Etna,the Peloritans continue, wholly similar to themountains of Calabria. Further south, again inthe eastern part of the island, there is a succes-sion of tablelands formed by lava, tufa andabove all calcareous rock, deeply carved out by gorges formed by erosion by water. Lastly, thecentre of Sicily is hilly. This is the so-calledsulphurbearing plateau, with a height varyingbetween 500 and 700 metres (with the excep-tion of the hill on which Enna stands, almost1000 metres hight).
Climate
It is decidedly Mediterranean, with hotsummers and short and mild winters. Thehours of the sunshine on average are 2500,againts the 2000 of mainland Italy - and the1800 of northern France. The not very abun-dant precipitations are concentrated in wintermonths from October to March. The highesttemperatures are in July and August - average26 degrees Celsius - and the lowest fromDecember to February - average 10-14 degreesCelsius. The water temperature varies fromabout 16 degrees Celsius in winter to 27 insummer. For a trip to Sicily, which is not lim-ited to bathing purposes, we reccommend thespring and autumn months, in particular the periods from the middle of April to the middleof June and September-October.
Government and population
Sicily, with the islands around it, is anAutonomus Region with a main town, whichsince 1946, has been Palermo, and since 1947it has had its own Parliament. Its population isestimated to be about 5,000,000, with a densi-ty of 190 inhabitants per square kilometre.
 The infiniteisland 
Who has never longed at least to know it? Few people or no one; so uni-versal is the fame of its beauty, and so much the memory of it is linkedto the history of the most widespread civilisation."This is what we read in the preface to the big volume that the ItalianTouring Club devoted to Sicily in 1933. Looking at the old photos, we can-not help noticing that the 60 years that have gone by have left their mark:they have darkened the facades of the old monuments, they have filled thesquares and streets with cars, they have done away with black scarves andancient customs, they have changed the face of the countryside.Nevertheless, although its fame has been obscured, although the time areremote when Palermo was a prize mecca for the rich and powerful, impa-tient to meet the local jet set which was the outcome of centuries of nobili-ty, yet still today it is worth knowing it, this Sicily with a thousand faces,at once poor and rich, closed and diffident in its noble decadence yet so anx-ious to be integrated in the modern world and modern times, "a nationrather than a region and, to boot, a plural nation, with so many differentidentities" (Bufalino)."An island not sufficiently an island" (Borgese) or perhaps "too muchan island", mythological and concrete, dark and sunny, magnificent andterrible.
 
The Chronological history of SicilyPrehistory - 35000-5000 B.C.
Late Palaeo-lith-ic. The Sicilians lived on hunting and berries.Graffiti in grottoes on Monte Pellegrino and onLevanzo from this period.
1900 - 1800 B.C.
Groups of Indo-European populations penetrated into Sicily, blendingwith the natives and starting the Bronze Age.Findings at Castelluccio, Naro, Filicudi,Syracuse and Pantalica.
1400 B.C.
Traces of the Aegean-Cretan civilisa-tion. The Elimi, founders of Erice and Segesta,and the Siculi came to Sicily. The latter broughtthe use of the horse and of copper, taught agri-culture and the cult of the dead.
1200 - 1000 B.C.
The Iron Age began. Findingsat Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto, Monte Finocchit-to (Noto), Sant’Angelo Muxaro. In the 11th to10th centuries the Phoenicians came, foundingSolunto, Motya and Palermo.
The Greeks - 753 B.C.
With the foundation of Naxos by Greek settlers, Sicily entered into thehistory of the Greek Mediterranean. In the ensu-ing years many colonies flourished: Syracuse(734), Catania (729), Gela (689), Selinunte(650), Agrigento (582). The colonies developedand became true towns, rich and decorated withmonuments.
485 B.C.
Gelon, tyrant of Gela, conqueredSyracuse, which in the ensuing years becameone of the main cities in the Mediterranean.
405 - 367B.C.
Dionysius I the Elder reached theapex of his power in Syracuse, getting himself elected tyrant of the town. Together with theKing of Persia, he was the most magnificentruler of his days, thanks to the splendour of hiscourt and the power of his army, capable of rout-ing the Carthaginians who fought against theGreeks for the dominion over Sicily.
316 - 289 B.C.
Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse.After the death of Dionysius, he was the firstseigneur capable of competing with the power of his predecessor, keeping out the Carthaginiansand taking Syracuse back to its former splen-dour. After his death, the town was in the handsof weak governors until the accession of Jeron II (276 B.C.), a mild, yet firm king who made analliance with Rome, a newborn Italic power.Vestiges of Greek Sicily in Syracuse, Agrigento,Selinunte, Segesta and Gela.
The Romans - 264 B.C.
The Mamertines, an
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Finds in theArchaeologicalMuseum ofAgrigento.

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