average bond enthalpy
positive; bond breaking of 1 mole of bonds).(g) calculate enthalpy changes from appropriate experimental resultsdirectly, including the use of the relationship: energy change =
.(h) use Hess’s Law to construct enthalpy cycles and carry out calculationsusing such cycles and relevant enthalpy terms, with particular reference toenthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, for example:(i) an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion;(ii) an enthalpy change of reaction from enthalpy changes of formation;(iii) an enthalpy change of reaction from average bond enthalpies.
5.3.2 Reaction rates
• Simple collision theory.• Effect of temperature and concentration on reaction rate.• Activation energy.• Use of catalysts.
Candidates should be able to:(a) describe qualitatively, in terms of collision theory, the effect of concentration changes on the rate of a reaction.(b) explain why an increase in the pressure of a gas, increasing itsconcentration, may increase the rate of a reaction involving gases.(c) explain qualitatively, using the Boltzmann distribution and enthalpy profilediagrams, what is meant by the term
.(d) describe qualitatively, using the Boltzmann distribution, the effect of temperature changes on the rate of a reaction.(e) explain what is meant by a
.(f) describe catalysts as having great economic importance, for example: infertiliser production(see also 5.3.3(c), (d)), petroleum processing (see also 5.2.3(b)) andmargarine production(see also 5.2.4(j)).