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How Far How Fast SOW

How Far How Fast SOW

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Published by: mreve.blog on Jun 12, 2007
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Chemistry ASMarlborough SchoolScheme of Work 
How Far, How Fast?Spring Term – Marlborough SchoolSyllabus Content
5.3.1 Enthalpy changes
• Enthalpy changes: Δ
of reaction, formation, combustion.• Bond enthalpy.• Hess’s Law and enthalpy cycles.
Assessment outcomes
Candidates should be able to:(a) explain that some chemical reactions are accompanied by enthalpychanges, principally in the form of heat energy; the enthalpy changes can beexothermic (Δ
, negative) or endothermic (Δ
, positive).(b) recognise the importance of oxidation as an exothermic process, forexample, in thecombustion of fuels and the oxidation of carbohydrates such as glucose inrespiration.(c) recognise that endothermic processes require an input of heat energy, forexample, the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate (see also 5.1.5(f))and in photosynthesis.(d) construct a simple enthalpy profile diagram for a reaction to show thedifference in the enthalpy of the reactants compared with that of theproducts.(e) explain chemical reactions in terms of enthalpy changes associated withthe breaking and making of chemical bonds.(f) explain and use the terms:(i)
enthalpy change of reaction
standard conditions
, with particularreference to formation and combustion;
standard conditions can be considered as 100 kPa and a stated temperature,e.g.298 K.
average bond enthalpy 
positive; bond breaking of 1 mole of bonds).(g) calculate enthalpy changes from appropriate experimental resultsdirectly, including the use of the relationship: energy change =
.(h) use Hess’s Law to construct enthalpy cycles and carry out calculationsusing such cycles and relevant enthalpy terms, with particular reference toenthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, for example:(i) an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion;(ii) an enthalpy change of reaction from enthalpy changes of formation;(iii) an enthalpy change of reaction from average bond enthalpies.
5.3.2 Reaction rates
• Simple collision theory.• Effect of temperature and concentration on reaction rate.• Activation energy.• Use of catalysts.
Assessment outcomes
Candidates should be able to:(a) describe qualitatively, in terms of collision theory, the effect of concentration changes on the rate of a reaction.(b) explain why an increase in the pressure of a gas, increasing itsconcentration, may increase the rate of a reaction involving gases.(c) explain qualitatively, using the Boltzmann distribution and enthalpy profilediagrams, what is meant by the term
activation energy 
.(d) describe qualitatively, using the Boltzmann distribution, the effect of temperature changes on the rate of a reaction.(e) explain what is meant by a
.(f) describe catalysts as having great economic importance, for example: infertiliser production(see also 5.3.3(c), (d)), petroleum processing (see also 5.2.3(b)) andmargarine production(see also 5.2.4(j)).

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