isomerism in alkenes, in terms of restricted rotation about adouble bond.(c) determine the possible structural and/or
isomers of an organicmolecule of given molecular formula.(d) perform calculations, involving use of the Mole Concept and reactingquantities, to determine the percentage yield of a reaction (see also 5.1.1(j),(k)).
5.2.2 Hydrocarbons: AlkanesContent
Physical properties of alkanes.
Chemical reactions of alkanes.[For simplicity, this module refers to substitution reactions of methane. It ismore convenient to use a liquid alkane in practical work. For example,cyclohexane can be used to demonstrate the reactions specified below.]See also 5.2.3 Hydrocarbons: Fuels.
Candidates should be able to:(a) state that alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.(b) explain, in terms of van der Waals’ forces, the variations in boiling pointsof alkanes with different carbon chain length and branching.(c) describe the lack of reactivity of alkanes, in terms of the non-polarity of C–H bonds.(d) describe the chemistry of alkanes, typified by the following reactions of methane:(i) combustion (see also, 5.2.3(c));(ii) substitution by chlorine and by bromine to form halogenoalkanes.(e) describe how homolytic fission leads to the mechanism of free-radicalsubstitution in alkanes, typified by methane and chlorine, in terms of initiation, propagation and termination reactions.Candidates are not required to use ‘half curly arrows’ in this mechanism.Equations should clearly show which species are free radicals using a single‘dot’ to represent the unpaired electron.