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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1 Parallel Computing and Networks
1.2 Parallel Computer Architectures
1.3 Network Design Considerations
1.4 Classification of Interconnection Networks
1.5 Shared-Medium Networks
1.5.1 Shared-Medium Local Area Networks
Contention Bus
Token Bus
Token Ring
1.5.2 Shared-Medium Backplane Bus
Methods of Information Transfer
Bus Arbitration
Split Transaction Protocol
Bus Examples
1.6 Direct Networks
1.6.1 Characterization of Direct Networks
1.6.2 Popular Network Topologies
Strictly Orthogonal Topologies
Other Direct Network Topologies
1.7 Indirect Networks
1.7.1 Characterization of Indirect Networks
1.7.3 Multistage Interconnection Networks
1.7.4 A Generalized MIN Model
Perfect Shuffle Permutation
Digit Reversal Permutation
Cube Permutation
Baseline Permutation
1.8 Hybrid Networks
1.8.2 Hierarchical Networks
1.8.3 Cluster-Based Networks
1.8.4 Other Hypergraph Topologies
Message Switching Layer
2.1 Network and Router Model
2.2 Basic Concepts
2.3 Basic Switching Techniques
2.3.3 Virtual Cut-Through (VCT) Switching
2.3.5 Mad Postman Switching
2.4 Virtual Channels
2.5 Hybrid Switching Techniques
2.5.1 Buffered Wormhole Switching
2.5.2 Pipelined Circuit Switching
2.6 Optimizing Switching Techniques
2.7 A Comparison of Switching Techniques
2.8 Engineering Issues
2.9 Commented References
Exercises
Problems
Deadlock, Livelock, and Starvation
3.1 A Theory of Deadlock Avoidance
3.1.1 Network and Router Models
3.1.5 Deadlock Avoidance in Wormhole Switching
3.2 Extensions
3.3 Alternative Approaches
3.3.1 Theoretical Approaches
3.6 Deadlock Recovery
3.6.1 Deadlock Probability
3.6.2 Detection of Potential Deadlocks
3.7 Livelock Avoidance
3.8 Engineering Issues
4.2 Deterministic Routing Algorithms
4.3 Partially Adaptive Algorithms
4.3.1 Planar-Adaptive Routing
4.4 Fully Adaptive Algorithms
4.4.1 Algorithms Based on Structured Buffer Pools
4.4.2 Algorithms Derived from SAF Algorithms
4.4.4 Deterministic and Adaptive Subnetworks
4.5 Maximally Adaptive Routing Algorithms
4.5.1 Algorithms with Maximum Adaptivity
4.5.3 True Fully Adaptive Routing Algorithms
4.6 Nonminimal Routing Algorithms
4.7 Backtracking Protocols
4.8 Routing in MINs
4.8.1 Blocking Condition in MINs
4.8.2 Self-Routing Algorithms for MINs
4.10 Resource Allocation Policies
5.1 Collective Communication Services
5.1.1 Multiple One-to-One Communication
5.1.2 One-to-All Communication
5.1.3 All-to-One Communication
5.1.4 All-to-All Communication
5.3 Preliminary Considerations
5.3.1 The Need for Multicast Communication
5.3.2 Evaluation Criteria
5.4 Models for Multicast Communication
5.5 Hardware Implementations of Multicast
5.5.1 Multiaddress Encoding Schemes
5.5.2 Tree-Based Multicast Routing
Broadcast Tree for Hypercube
Tree-Based Multicast with Pruning
5.5.3 Path-Based Multicast Communication
Dual-Path Multicast Routing
Multipath Multicast Routing
Multicast Channel Dependencies
Adaptive Multicast Routing
Base Routing Conformed Path
Deadlocks in Delivery Channels
5.6.1 Barrier Synchronization on a Linear Array
Architectural Support
Communication Sequence
5.6.2 Barrier Synchronization on Meshes
Complete Barrier Synchronization
Arbitrary Set Barrier Synchronization
5.6.3 Reduction and Global Combining
5.7 Software Implementations of Multicast
5.7.1 Desirable Features in Multicast Trees
5.7.2 Dimension-Ordered Chains
5.7.3 Multicast in Hypercubes
5.7.4 Multicast in Meshes
5.8 Engineering Issues
5.9 Commented References
Fault-Tolerant Routing
6.1 Fault-Induced Deadlock and Livelock
6.2 Channel and Network Redundancy
6.4.3 Routing Algorithms Based on Graph Search
6.4.4 Deadlock and Livelock Freedom Issues
6.5.1 Rectangular Fault Regions
6.5.2 Software-Based Fault-Tolerant Routing
6.5.3 Unconstrained Fault Regions
6.7.3 Message-Level Recovery
6.7.4 Miscellaneous Issues
6.8 Engineering Issues
6.9 Commented References
Network Architectures
7.1.1 Bisection Bandwidth Constraints
7.1.2 Node Size Constraints
7.1.3 Wire Delay Constraints
Constant Bisection Width
Constant Node Size
Constant Wire Throughput
Optimal Number of Dimensions—Summary
7.1.6 Packaging Constraints
7.2 Router Architectures
7.2.1 Intrarouter Performance
7.2.2 Physical Channel Issues
The Cray T3D Router
The Cray T3E Router
The Reliable Router
SGI SPIDER
The Chaos Router
Arctic Router
R2 Router
The Alpha 21364 Router
Intel iPSC Direct Connect Module (DCM)
Optimizing Circuit Switching
7.2.6 Pipelined Circuit Switching
7.2.7 Buffered Wormhole Switching
7.2.8 Network of Workstations
Myrinet
ServerNet
7.3 Engineering Issues
7.4 Commented References
Messaging Layer Software
8.1 Functionality of the Messaging Layer
8.1.2 Network Interface Control
8.1.3 User/Kernel Interface
8.1.5 In-Order Message Delivery
8.1.6 Reliable Message Delivery
8.2 Impact of Message Processing Delays
8.3 Implementation of the Messaging Layer
8.3.1 Example: Active Messages
8.3.2 Example: Illinois Fast Messages
8.4.2 Point-to-Point Communication
8.4.3 Collective Communication
8.5 Engineering Issues
8.6 Commented References
Performance Evaluation
9.2 Workload Models
9.3 Comparison of Switching Techniques
9.4 Comparison of Routing Algorithms
Deterministic versus Adaptive Routing
9.4.3 Performance under Nonuniform Traffic
9.5 Effect of Message Length
9.6 Effect of Network Size
9.7 Impact of Design Parameters
9.7.1 Effect of the Number of Virtual Channels
9.7.2 Effect of the Number of Ports
9.9 Injection Limitation
9.10 Impact of Router Delays on Performance
9.10.5 Effect of the Number of Virtual Channels
9.11 Performance of Collective Communication
9.11.1 Comparison with Separate Addressing
9.11.4 Performance of Optimized Multicast Routing
Complete Barrier
Arbitrary Subset Barrier
9.12 Software Messaging Layer
9.12.1 Overhead of the Software Messaging Layer
Locality Metrics
The Effects of Locality
9.13 Performance of Fault-Tolerant Algorithms
9.13.1 Software-Based Fault-Tolerant Routing
Cost of e-sft and DP-sft
Simulation Results
9.13.2 Routing Algorithms for PCS
Fault-Free Performance
Fault-Tolerant Performance
9.13.3 Routing Algorithms for Scouting
Cost of Supporting Dynamic Faults
Trace-Driven Simulation
9.15 Commented References
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Interconnection Networks an Engineering Approach - Fly

Interconnection Networks an Engineering Approach - Fly

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Published by Vinay Dwivedi

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Published by: Vinay Dwivedi on Jul 25, 2012
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