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Mathematics Formulary
By ir. J.C.A. Wevers
 
c
1999, 2008 J.C.A. Wevers Version: May 4, 2008Dear reader,This document contains 66 pages with mathematical equations intended for physicists and engineers. It is intendedto be a short reference for anyone who often needs to look up mathematical equations.This document can also be obtained from the author, Johan Wevers (
johanw@vulcan.xs4all.nl
).It can also be found on the WWW on
http://www.xs4all.nl/˜johanw/index.html
.This document is Copyright by J.C.A. Wevers. All rights reserved. Permission to use, copy and distribute thisunmodified document by any means and for any purpose
except profit purposes
is hereby granted. Reproducing thisdocument by any means, included, but not limited to, printing, copying existing prints, publishing by electronic orother means, implies full agreement to the above non-profit-use clause, unless upon explicit prior written permissionof the author.The C code for the rootfinding via Newtons method and the FFT in chapter 8 are from “
 Numerical Recipes in
”,2nd Edition, ISBN 0-521-43108-5.The Mathematics Formulary is made with teTEX and L
A
TEX version 2.09.If you prefer the notation in which vectors are typefaced in boldface, uncomment the redefinition of the
\
vec
command and recompile the file.If you find any errors or have any comments, please let me know. I am always open for suggestions and possiblecorrections to the mathematics formulary.Johan Wevers
 
Contents
Contents I1 Basics 1
1.1 Goniometric functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Hyperbolic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5 Complex numbers and quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5.1 Complex numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5.2 Quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.6 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.6.1 Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.6.2 Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.7 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.8 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.8.1 Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.8.2 Convergence and divergence of series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.8.3 Convergence and divergence of functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.9 Products and quotients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.10 Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.11 Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.12 Primes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 Probability and statistics 9
2.1 Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2 Probability theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.3 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.3.2 Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.4 Regression analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3 Calculus 12
3.1 Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.1.1 Arithmetic rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.1.2 Arc lengts, surfaces and volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.1.3 Separation of quotients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.1.4 Special functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.1.5 Goniometric integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143.2 Functions with more variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143.2.1 Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143.2.2 Taylor series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.2.3 Extrema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.2.4 The
-operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2.5 Integral theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.2.6 Multiple integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.2.7 Coordinate transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183.3 Orthogonality of functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183.4 Fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18I

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