Heavy ReinforcedConcrete, Pre-Stressed Concrete &Steel ConstructionFoundations SystemsFoundation Walls,BasementConstruction, CisternsReinforced ConcreteColumnsReinforced ConcreteFloor SystemsRoof DecksWalls & StructuralWallsPre-Stress ConcretePre-Cast ConcreteFloor SystemsBuilding ProtectionSystems
3.1.1 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONSShallow
are employed when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near the ground surface. Theyare placed directly below the lowest part of a superstructure and transfer building loads directly to the supporting soil by vertical pressure. The typesof shallow or spread footings are:1.
Individual or isolated footings
are spread footings supporting free-standing columns and piers.
a.Block or square footingsb. Stepped footingsc. Slope or pyramidal footings