Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Chapter 13 Structures and Properties of Ceramics

Chapter 13 Structures and Properties of Ceramics

Ratings: (0)|Views: 12|Likes:
Published by Kiran Babu Satuluri

More info:

Published by: Kiran Babu Satuluri on Jul 25, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/08/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of CeramicsUniversity of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
1
Chapter Outline:CeramicsChapter 13:Structure and Properties of Ceramics
Crystal Structures
Silicate Ceramics
Carbon
Imperfections in Ceramics
Optional reading: 13.6 13.10
Chapter 14:Applications and Processing of Ceramics
Short review of glass/ceramics applications and processing (14.1 -14.7)
Optional reading: 14.8 –14.18
Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of CeramicsUniversity of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
2
keramikos
-burnt stuff in Greek -desirable propertiesof ceramics are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process (firing).
Usually a compound between metallic and non-metallic elements
Always composed of more than one element (e.g.,Al
2
O
3
, NaCl, SiC, SiO
2
)
Bonds are partially or totally ionic, and can havecombination of ionic and covalent bonding
Generally hard and brittle
Generally electrical and thermal insulators
Can be optically opaque, semi-transparent, or transparent
Traditional ceramics –based on clay (china, bricks,tiles, porcelain), glasses.
“New ceramics” for electronic, computer, aerospaceindustries.
Ceramics
 
Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of CeramicsUniversity of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
3
Electronegativity -a measure of how willing atoms are toaccept electrons (subshellswith one electron -lowelectronegativity;subshellswith one missing electron -high electronegativity). Electronegativity increases fromleft to right.
Bonding in Ceramics (Review of Chapter 2)
The atomic bonding inceramics is mixed, ionic andcovalent, the degree of ioniccharacter depends on thedifference of electronegativity between thecations(+) andanions (-).
Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of CeramicsUniversity of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
4
Crystal structure is defined by
Magnitude of the electrical charge on each ion. Charge balance dictates chemical formula (Ca
2+
and F
-
formCaF
2
).
Relative sizes of the cations and anions.Cationswantsmaximum possible number of anion nearest neighborsand vice-versa.
Crystal Structures in Ceramicswith predominantly ionic bonding
Stable ceramic crystal structures: anionssurrounding acation are all in contact with that cation. For a specificcoordination number there is a critical or minimum cation-anion radius ratio r 
C
/r 
A
for which this contact can bemaintained.
 
Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of CeramicsUniversity of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
5
Coordination Number
The number of adjacent atoms (ions) surroundinga referenceatom (ion) without overlap of electron orbitals.Also called ligancyDepends on ion size (close packed)Ideal: Like-sized atoms = 12Calculated by considering the greatest numbeof larger ions(radius R) that can be in contact with the smaller one (radius r).
R=1.0r =0.2
CN = 1 possibleCN = 2 possibleCN = 4 possible
30°
Cos 30
°
=0.866=R/(r+R)
r/R = 0.155
Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of CeramicsUniversity of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
6
Example: Al
2
O
3
Al
+3
r=0.057nm, O
-2
R=0.132nm, r/R = 0.43,
CN = 6 
However for O
-2
CN= (2/3) (6)= 4[(2/3) = (cation/ion) ratio]Example: KCl
+
r=0.133nm, Cl
-
R=0.188nm,r/R = 0.71,
CN = 6 
Example: CsClCs
+
r=0.165nm, Cl
-
R=0.188nm,r/R = 0.91,
CN = 8
CNr/20<r/R<0.15530.155
r/R<0.22540.225
r/R<0.41460.414
r/R<0.73280.732
r/R<1121
CN numbers for ionic bonding
Coordination Number

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->