For the purposes of this Report, the Balkans comprises the nine nations of the Stability Pact: Albania, Bosnia andHerzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, andSerbia. This study was undertaken by the Research and Analysis Section of the United Nations ofﬁce on Drugsand Crime in the framework of the project “Illicit Market Studies”(GLO/H93). The author and lead researcher is TedLeggett. Research assistance was provided by Steven Malby, Sasa Cvijetic, Petar Dragesic, and Frederic Lesne.Field support was provided by UNODC ofﬁces in Belgrade and Tirana. Cover photographs courtesy of OSCE.Photographers, from left to right, were OSCE Mission in Kosovo; Milan Obradovic; Marko Georgiev; and OSCE.Graphic design was conducted by Suzanne Kunnen and Kristina Kuttnig. Comments on preliminary drafts of thestudy were received from a wide range of authorities, including academics, international organisations, and Mem-ber States. Funding for this study was provided by the Governments of Hungary and Poland.The description and classiﬁcation of countries or territories in this publication and the arrangement of the materialdoes not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations con-cerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation ofits frontiers or boundaries. This document has not been formally edited.