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BC0049 – Software Engineering Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 1

BC0049 – Software Engineering Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 1

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smu solved bca 4th sem BC0049 – Software Engineering Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 1
Full Solved SMU BCA ,4,semester assignment 2012
smu solved bca 4th sem BC0049 – Software Engineering Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 1
Full Solved SMU BCA ,4,semester assignment 2012

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1. List the applications of software. Answer
System software:
System software is a collection of programs written to service other programs. Somesystem software process complex information structures. Other systems applications process largelyindeterminate data. It is characterized by heavy interaction with hardware, heavy usage by multiple users,concurrent operation that requires scheduling, resource sharing, and sophisticated process management,complex data structures and multiple external interfaces.
Real time software:
Software that monitors/analyzes/controls real-world events as they occur is calledreal time.
Business Software:
Business information processing is the largest single software application area.Discrete systems like payroll, accounts receivable/payable have evolved into management informationsystems(MIS) software that accesses one or more large databases containing business information.Applications in this area restructure existing data in a way that facilitates business operations ormanagement decision making.
Engineering and scientific software:
Engineering and scientific software has been characterized by
“number crunching” algorithms. Applications range from astronomy to volc
ano logy, from automotive stressanalysis to space shuttle orbital dynamics and from molecular biology to automated manufacturing.
Embedded software:
Embedded software resides only in read-only memory and is used to controlproducts and systems for the consumer and industrial markets. Embedded software can provide verylimited and esoteric functions or provide significant function and control capability.
Personal computer software:
Day to day useful applications like word processing, spreadsheets,multimedia, database management, personal and business financial applications are some of the commonexamples for personal computer software.
Web-based software:
The web pages retrieved by a browser are software that incorporates executableinstructions and data. In essence, the network becomes a massive computer providing an almost unlimitedsoftware resource that can be accessed by anyone with a modem.
 Artificial Intelligence software:
Artificial Intelligence software makes use of non numerical algorithms tosolve complex problems that are not amenable to computation or straightforward analysis. Expert systems,also called knowledge based systems, pattern recognition, game playing are representative examples of applications within this category.
Software crisis:
The set of problems that are encountered in the development of computer software is not limited to software that does not function properly rather the affliction encompasses problems associatedwith how we develop software, how we support a growing volume of existing software, and how we canexpect to keep pace with a growing demand for more software.
 
2. Discuss the Limitation of the linear sequential model in software engineering.Answer
Limitation of the linear sequential model
1. The linear sequential model or waterfall model assumes the requirement of a system which can befrozen (baseline) before the design begins. This is possible for systems designed to automate an existingmanual system. But for a new system, determining the requirements is difficult as the user does not evenknow the requirements. Hence, having unchanging requirements is unrealistic for such projects.2. Freezing the requirements usually requires choosing the hardware (because it forms a part of therequirement specifications) A large project might take a few years to complete. If the hardware is selectedearly, then due to the speed at which hardware technology is changing , it is likely the final software willuse a hardware technology on the verge of becoming obsolete. This is clearly not desirable for suchexpensive software systems.3. The waterfall model stipulates that the requirements be completely specified before the rest of thedevelopment can proceed. In some situations it might be desirable to first develop a part of the systemcompletely and then later enhance the system in phases. This is often done for software products that aredeveloped not necessarily for a client, but for general marketing, in which case the requirements arelikely to be determined largely by the developers themselves.4. It is a document driven process that requires formal documents at the end of each phase. This approachtends to make the process documentation-heavy and is not suitable for many applications, particularlyinteractive application, where developing elaborate documentation of the user interfaces is not feasible.Also, if the development is done using fourth generation language or modern development tools,developing elaborate specifications before implementation is sometimes unnecessary.Despite these limitations, the serial model is the most widely used process model. It is well suited forroutine types of projects where the requirements are well understood. That is if the developingorganization is quite familiar with the problem domain and requirements for the software are quite clear,the waterfall model or serial model works well.
 
3. Explain briefly about the incremental development model.Answer
The incremental Development Model
 The incremental model combines elements of the linear sequential model with the iterative of prototyping. The incremental model applies linear sequences in a staggered fashion as calendar time
 progresses. Each linear sequence produces a deliverable “increment” of the software. For e.g
., wordprocessing software developed using the incremental paradigm might deliver basic file management,editing, and document production functions in the first increment; more sophisticated editing anddocument production capabilities in the second increment; spelling and grammar checking in the thirdincrement; and advanced page layout capability in the fourth increment. It should be noted that theprocess flow for any increment could incorporate the prototyping paradigm.
The incremental model
 When an incremental model is used, the first increment is a core product. That is, basic requirements areaddressed, but many supplementary features remain undelivered. The customer uses the core product. Asa result of use and/or evaluation, a plan is developed for the next increment. The plan addresses themodification of the core product to better meet the needs of the customer and the delivery of additionalfeatures and functionality. This process is repeated following the delivery of each increment, until thecomplete product is produced. The incremental process model is iterative in nature. The incrementalmodel focuses on the delivery of an operational product with each increment.Incremental development is particularly useful when staffing is unavailable for a completeimplementation by the business deadline that has been established for the project. Early increments canbe implemented with fewer people. If the core product is well received, then additional staff can be addedto implement the next increment. In addition increments can be planned to manage technical risks. Fore.g.: a major system might require the availability of new hardware i.e., under development and whosedelivery date is uncertain. It might be possible to plan early increments in a way that avoids the use of this hardware, thereby enabling partial functionality to be delivered to end.

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