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BC0050 – Oracle & Distributed Databases Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 2

BC0050 – Oracle & Distributed Databases Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 2

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smu solved 4th sem bca BC0050 – Oracle & Distributed Databases Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 2
Full Solved SMU BCA ,4,semester assignment 2012
smu solved 4th sem bca BC0050 – Oracle & Distributed Databases Spring 2012, Assignment Set – 2
Full Solved SMU BCA ,4,semester assignment 2012

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Published by: hakkempalakkal on Jul 26, 2012
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1. Discuss the objectives of Query Processing.
Objectives of Query Processing
The main objectives of query processing in a distributed environment is to form a high level queryon a distributed database, which is seen as a single database by the users, into an efficient executionstrategy expressed in a low level language in local databases.
An important point of query processing is query optimization. Because many execution strategiesare correct transformations of the same high level query the one that optimizes (minimizes)resource consumption should be retained.
The good measure of resource consumption are:
The total cost that will be incurred in processing the query. It is the dome of all times incurred inprocessing the operations of the query at various sites and intrinsic communication.
The resource time of the query. This is the time elapsed for executing the query. Since operationscan be executed in parallel at different sited, the response time of a query may be significantlyless than its cost.
Obviously the total cost should be minimized.
In a distributed system, the total cost to be minimized includes CPU, I\O, and communicationcosts. This cost can be minimized by reducing the number of I\O operation through fast accessmethods to the data and efficient use of main memory. The communication cost is the timeneeded for exchanging the data between sited participating in the execution of the query.
In centralized systems, only CPU and I\O cost have to be considered.
2. Discuss the Features of the Heterogeneous Services
The following are the features of Heterogeneous services.
Distributed Transactions: A transaction can span both Oracle and non-Oracle system, while still
guaranteeing, through Oracle’s two phase
commit mechanism, that changes are either al committed orall rolled back.b.
Transparent SQL access: integrate data from non-Oracle systems into the Oracle environment as if thedata is store in one single, local database. SQL statement understood by the non-Oracle system.c.
Procedural Access: procedural systems, like messaging and queuing system, are accessed from anOracle9i server using PL/SQL remote procedure calls.d.
Data Dictionary translations: To make the non-Oracle system appear as another Oracle server, SQL
statement containing references to Oracle’s data dictionary tables are transformed into SQL statement 
containing references to a non-
Oracle system’s data dictionary tables.
Pass-through SQL: Optionally, application programmers can directly access a non- Oracle system froman Oracle application using thenon-
Oracle system’s SQL dialect.
Accessing stored procedures: Store procedures in SQL-based non-Oracle systems are accessed as if theywere PL/SQL remote procedures.g.
National Language Support: Heterogeneous services supports multi-byte character sets, and translatescharacter sets between a non-Oracle system and the Oracle9i server.h.
Multi-Threaded Agents: Multi-
threaded agents take advantage of your operating system’s threading
capabilities. Multi-threaded agents reduce the number of required processes by taking advantage of multi-threaded server capabilities.i.
Agent Self-Registration: Agent self-registration automates the process of updating Heterogeneousservices configuration data on remote hosts, ensuring correct operation over heterogeneous databaselinksj.
Management Interface: Provides a graphic representation of a active Heterogeneous Services agents andof which user sessions are accessing those agents.
3. Explain the steps involved in recovery of distributed transactions. Answer
For Recovery of Distributed transactions, let’s assume that at each site a Local Transaction Manager
is available. Each agent can issue begin_transaction, commit, and abort primitives to its LTM. After havingissued a begin_transaction to its LMT. An agent will possess the properties of a local transaction. We will callan agent that has issued a begin_transaction primitive to its local transaction manager a Sub-transaction.Also to distinguish the begin_transaction, commit, and abort primitives of the distributed transaction fromthe local primitives issued by each agent to its LTM, we will call the later as local_begin, local_commit, andlocal_abort.For building a Distributed Transaction Manager (DTM), the following properties are expected from the LTM:
Ensuring the atomicity of sub-transaction·
Writing some records on stable storage on behalf of the distributed transaction managerWe need the second requirement, as some additional information must also be recorded in suchaway that they can be recovered in case of failure. In order to make sure that either all actions of adistributed transaction are performed or none is performed at all, two conditions are necessary:· At each site either all actions are performed or none is performed· All sites must take the same decision with respect to the commitment or abort of sub transaction.
: When it is issued by the
root agent,
DTM will have to issue a
local_begin primitive
to theLTM at the site of origin and all the sites at which there are already active agents of the same application,thus transforming all agents into sub-transactions; from this time on the activation of a new agent by thesame distributed transaction requires that the local_begin be issued to the LTM where the agent is activated,so that the new agent is created as a Sub-transaction. The example of FUND TRANSFER is taken forexplaining this concept. The fig 8.1 explains this.
: When an abort is issued by the root agent, all existing sub-transactions must be aborted. Issuinglocal_aborts to the LTMs at all sites where there is an active sub transaction performs this.
: The implementation of the commit primitive is the most difficult and expensive. The maindifficulty originates from the fact that the correct commitment of a distributed transaction requires that alsub-transactions commit locally even if there are failures.

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