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History and Introduction Notes

History and Introduction Notes

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Published by chris

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Published by: chris on Jan 12, 2009
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06/17/2009

 
History of Anatomy & PhysiologyA. The written history of anatomy begins with Claudius ______________ (A.D. 130-200). Hewas a physician to gladiators and later to emperors. He sought to further understand thehuman body and urged inquiry into ___________________, and learning from ___________________.1. He wrote texts on numerous subjects, but wrote 16 on medicine that formed thebasis for most medical knowledge for the next __________ years.2. His work grew in importance throughout the years, and influenced medicinethroughout Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.a. The popularity of his medical texts peaked during the Renaissance leadingto _________________.i. They interpreted their findings to fit in with his ‘___________’ text andnot what they _______________ in the human body.3. Galen was in a unique position in his early life working with gladiators, becausehe saw the ______________ of bodies and parts of bodies, but usually for a very ___________ time.4. Most societies considered the observation or ____________ of cadavers _________,or had _________________ it after live dissections or stolen corpses.a. All of Galen’s observations came from only a _______ occasions includingonly two times observing ______________ bones, the _______________________ of monkeys, and the _______________________ of pigs.b. These observations formed the basis for knowledge of the human body forthe next thousand years.c. There were numerous ___________ that remained uncorrected due to lack of  _______________________ and ____________________.B. After Galen, cadaver dissections remained very __________; occasionally criminals thathad been executed were used for dissections.1. This use of executed criminals for dissections persisted until ________________.2. During the ______________, it was common to chop and boil bodies, and send the __________ back to Europe.a. This led to the more common ______________ of human bones and someefforts to correct the _______________ of Galen.3. The Black Death that swept through Europe in 1348 required the partial ____________ of corpses to determine the cause of ___________.
 
a. These events led to the eventual allowance of increased numbers of  ______________, but they were still _________ and performed _____________ over a few days due to lack of ____________________.C. Andreas _______________ is considered the father of modern ________________.1. He was one of the first learned men to also perform ________________ himself,and introduced detailed anatomical _________________ into his text.2. His works overthrew the ____________ system and reintroduced anatomy to the ___________________ of the human body and provided a means for everyone to learneven without a __________________.3. His work came at a time when the printing of _____________ became widespread,and his text became widely disseminated as a result.D. After Vesalius, William ______________ studied the function of the heart and determinedit was the organ that propelled blood throughout the body.1. The work of ________________ is considered the founding of modern _______________ and began the ___________________ measurement of physiologicalvariables.a. Many had believed that each person’s body was ________________ and that _____________________ could not be made from one personto another.E. After the creation of the microscope by Leuwenhook, Marcello ______________ used themicroscope to examine the human body, and is considered the father of  ___________________________.1. He confirmed the findings of ______________ by discovering the capillariesconnecting the arteries and the veins. This proved the ________________of the blood.2. He also observed the _____________ and ______________ of the lungs.a. Many scholars were ________________ to his findings because they thoughtthe ______________________ distorted the vision and gave a ________ image of the body (including Malpighi’s own professors).F. Numerous others made contributions to our knowledge of the body that has onlyintensified with the use of greater tools for experimentation and observation.G. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology1. Anatomy (Ana: ______; temnien: __________) is the ___________ or ___________ of the __________________ of organized bodies.a. There are various subfields of anatomy including: _________logy: cell; study of_________logy: tissue; study o
 
 _____________ anatomy: is the study of structures that can be seen with thenaked eye _____________ anatomy: study of forms and markings of the body2. _________________ (Physis: ___________; logia: _______________) is the study of the __________________ of living organisms.Subfields of physiology include:NeurologyPulmonologyMycologyEndocrinologyNephrologyOsteologyCardiologyUrology
Why do you study anatomy and physiology?
3. _____________ is a method used to answer questions that relies on ________________ and ___________________.a. Knowledge is ___________________ and _______________ based on scientificfindings.b. A ______________ is information that can be ___________________ verified by a ______________ person.c. A __________ of nature is a ________________ about the predictable ways inwhich matter and ____________________.d. A _____________ is an explanatory statement or set of statements derivedfrom _________, _____________, and ________________________.i. Often people confuse a theory and a __________________, and thinkthat a theory is a guess or a conjecture.e. The purpose of a theory is to ______________ what we already know, and to ________________ directions for further study to help ___________ future findings. The organization of living things:1. The ____________ is a single, complete individual that is composed of organsystems.2. An ___________________ is a group of organs with a collective function.a. The human body has integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous,endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and reproductivesystems.

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