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Japanese Occupation of the Philippines

Japanese Occupation of the Philippines

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Published by: julesubayubay5428 on Jul 27, 2012
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During World War II
On December 8, 1941, Japan invaded the Philippines. Clark AirBase in Pampanga was first attacked, then on December 22, The Japaneseforces landed at the Lingayen Gulf and continued on to Manila. GeneralDouglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city on the advice of commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon to avoid its destruction.Manila was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. MacArthurretreated with his troops to Bataan while the commonwealth governmentwithdrew to Corregidor island before proceeding to the United States. The joint American and Filipino soldiers in Bataan finally surrendered on April9, 1942. MacArthur escaped to Corregidor then proceeded to Australia. The 76,000 captured soldiers were forced to embark on the infamous"Death March" to a prison camp more than 100 kilometersnorth. An estimated 10,000 prisoners died due to thirst, hunger andexhaustion.
The Huks
In the midst of fear and chaos, the farmers of Pampanga bandedtogether and created local brigades for their protection. Luis Taruc, JuanFeleo, Castro Alejandrino, and other leaders of organized farmers held ameeting in February 1942 in Cabiao, Nueva Ecija. In that meeting, theyagreed to fight the Japanese as a unified guerrilla army. Another meetingwas held the following month, where in representatives from Tarlac,Pampanga and Nueva Ecija threshed out various details regarding theirorganization, which they agreed to call " Hukbo ng Bayan Laban samga Hapon " or HUKBALAHAP . Taruc was chosen to be the Leaderof the group, with Alejandrino as his right hand man. The members weresimply known as Huks!
The Philippine Executive Commission
In accordance the instructions of President Manuel Quezon to Jorge Vargas, the Filipino officials in Manila were told to enter intoagreements and compromises with the Japanese to mitigate the sufferingsof the people under the iron-clad rule of the Japanese. On January 23,
1942 the Philippine Executive Commission was established, with Vargas aschairman. the following was appointed as department heads: BenignoAquino, Sr., interior; Antonio de las Alas, finance; Jose P. Laurel, justice;Claro M. Recto, education, health, and public welfare; and Quintin Paredes,public works and communication; Jose Yulo was named Chief Justice of theSupreme court.
 The following month, an election was held for members of ThePreparatory Commission for Philippine Independence (PCPI). The purposeof PCPI is to draw up a constitution for a free Philippines. Jose Laurelbecame its head. Against the will of the PCPI delegates the newConstitution was finalized on July 10, 1943. Two months later it wasratified by the KALIBAPI , which was the only political party allowed toexist at that time. KALIBAPI is the acronym for “ Kapisanan sa Paglilingkodsa Bagong Pilipinas”
 The new constitution, which noticeably lacked a bill of rightscontained 12 articles lifted from the 1935 constitution that fitted thewishes of the Japanese. It was meant to be in effect only temporarily,while the Philippines still in chaos. After the war, a new constitution wouldagain be drafted for the new Philippine Republic.
The Second Republic
On September 20 1943, the KALIBAPI - under the leadership of its director general, Benigno Aquino Sr. held a party convention to elect 54members of the National Assembly. The Assembly was actually made upof 108 members; but half of this number was composed of incumbentgovernors and city mayors. Jose P. Laurel was elected as president of thesecond republic (the first republic was Aguinldo's Malolos Republic) andboth Benigno Aquino Sr. & Ramon Avancena as a vice-presidents. The newrepublic was inaugurated on October 14 1943 on the front steps of thelegislative building in Manila. The Philippine flag was hoisted as thenational anthem was played.
Meanwhile, the Japanese started using propaganda to gain thetrust and confidence of Filipinos who refused to cooperate with them. Theyhung giant posters and distribute their materials that contains suchslogans as “the Philippines belong to the Filipinos” they also usednewspapers, movies, and others to publicize the same idea. Promoting Japanese propaganda was one of the main objectives of the KALIBAPI , butstill Japanese failed to gain the trust of the Filipinos.
Gen. Douglas McArthur Returns
From Australia, Allied forces slowly advanced toward thePhilippines, bombing several Japanese strongholds until they regainedcontrol of areas previously occupied by the enemy. The bombings beganon September 21 1944, and barely a month later, on October 20, 1944,the Americans landed triumphantly in Leyte. Once a shore, GeneralDouglas MacArthur said; "I have Returned."
Sergio Osmeña was Part of MacArthur’s group. He had takenover Manuel L. Quezon as president after the latter past way at SaranacLake, New York on August 1944. From October 23 to October 26, 1944 theAmericans engaged Japanese forces in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Consideras the biggest naval battle in World History, this historic encounter almostdestroyed the entire Japanese fleet and rendered in incapable of furtherattack. The US victory in the battle of Leyte Gulf is said to have signaledthe beginning of Philippine liberation from the Japanese.
By mid-December, the American soldiers had reached Mindoro. The Japanese, meanwhile, secured other area where their thought otherAmerican units would land. Nevertheless, US liberation forces successfullydocked at Lingayen Gulf on January 9, 1945. The news alarmed the Japanese. Lt. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, supreme commander of the Japanese troops in Manila, mobilize his kamikazes (Japanese suicidepilots); but they failed to stop Americans. The Japanese also deployedMAKAPILI units to defend Manila but neither succeeds.

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