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Fluid Mechanics Lecture Notes (II)

Fluid Mechanics Lecture Notes (II)

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Published by Chiu-On Ng
Lecture notes on fluid mechanics for Year II B.Eng. in Mechanical Engineering, HKU.
Lecture notes on fluid mechanics for Year II B.Eng. in Mechanical Engineering, HKU.

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Published by: Chiu-On Ng on Jan 12, 2009
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07/03/2013

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Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of Hong Kong
Mechanics of Fluids MECH2008 (2008 – 2009)
Lecturer:
Dr. C.O. Ng (office: HW7-1; phone: 28592622; email: cong@hku.hk)
Required Text
:
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
5
th
Ed., B.R. Munson, D.F. Young & T.H.Okiishi, Wiley Asia Student Edition.
References
: 1)
Fluid 
 
 Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications
, Y.A. Cengel & J.M.Cimbala, McGraw-Hill.2)
Fluid Mechanics
6
th
Ed., F.M.White, McGraw-Hill.3)
 Multi-Media Fluid Mechanics CD-ROM 
, Cambridge University Press.
Assessment
: In-course continuous assessment 10%
 
a mid-term test to be announced laterExamination in December 90%
Topics Covered
:1.
 
Flow kinematics with differential vector calculus2.
 
Differential equations of motion3.
 
Unidirectional viscous flow and hydrodynamic lubrication4.
 
Potential flow and stream function5.
 
Boundary layer and drag6.
 
Open-channel flow and fluid machines
Prerequisites:-
This is a Level-II Mechanics of Fluids course demanding the knowledge you acquired in thefirst-year fluid and mathematics courses. In particular, the following topics are relevant andshould be reviewed if you have already forgotten the stuffs:-1) Properties of fluid (density, viscosity);2) Principles of fluid statics;3) Fluid dynamics by control volume approach
 
continuity equation
 
energy equation (or Bernoulli equation)
 
momentum equation
 
head, head loss4)
 
Differentiation and integration;5) Vector differential calculus (grad, div, curl, Gauss theorem, etc);
 
1
 
Lecture Notes and Worked Examples
 (The corresponding section numbers in the textbook or other references are noted whereverappropriate.)
(I) DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW
A.
 
Description of Fluid Motion (Section 4.1.1)
 
Lagrangian description: fluid particles are “tagged” or identified; rate of change of flow properties as observed by following a fixed particle; variables are functions of the initial position of particles and time.
 
Eulerian description: fluid properties and variables are field variables, which arefunctions of position in space (with respect to a fixed frame of reference) and time.The Eulerian description, which is comparable to the data recorded by a measuringdevice fixed in position, is more convenient to use in fluid mechanics.
 
Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptionsof temperature of a fluid dischargingfrom a smoke stack ual particlesIn the Lagrangian description, onemust keep track of the position andvelocity of individ
 
Rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates:
( )( )( )
123123123
(,,)(,,) 1,2,3(,,)(,,) 1,2,3,,,, 1,2,3e.g.,,,(,,)
iiiii
 x y z x x x x iu v w u u u u ii x y z x x x xuu v wu v w x y z x y z x
= = = == = = == = = == + + =
 x V =
i i
 
 z
 
 y
 
O x
 
 
Primitive variables:pressure (,) - scalar (0th order tensor)velocity (,) - vector (1st order tensor)
 p
 x V
 Deduced variable stre
 
ss (,) - 2nd order tensor
τ 
 2
 
 In the Eulerian description, onedefines field variables, such as thepressure field and the velocity field,at any location and instant in time.
B.
 
Kinematics (Sections 4.2 and 6.1)
 
Total (a.k.a. material, substantial) derivative = local rate of change + convective (oradvective) rate of change = the rate of change as observed following a particle of fixed identity. It is an operator that can be applied to any scalar or vector quantity.
( ) ( )( )( )( )
 
( ) ( ) ( )( )
 local rateconvective rate of changeof changee.g., local acceleration =convective acceleration =
dt u v wt x y zu v w x y z
= += + + ++ +
ii
V V V =
 -
 
The local rate of change, also called the unsteady term, vanishes identically fora steady flow. Therefore a flow is steady if and only if /0
.-
 
The quantity
( )
i
is a scalar convective operator that determines the timerate of change of any property (e.g., velocity, density, concentration,temperature) of a particle by reason of the fact that the particle moves from aplace where the property has one value to another place where it has adifferent value.The total derivative is defined byfollowing a fluid particle as it movesthroughout the flow field. In thisillustration, the fluid particle isaccelerating to the right as it movesup and to the right.A velocity field with respect to a fixedframe of reference (
 x
,
 y
). A point fixedin space is occupied by different fluidparticles at different time.3

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